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Full text of "Is Darwin right? : or, The origin of man"

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In this volume I present to the public substantially 
what I have been presenting in my lectures for more than 
twenty-five years, giving here, however, greater promi- 
nence to the spiritual origin of man ; for the question of 
man's natural origin is generally decided in the affirma- 
tive, and the great question now is as to the means by 
which the result was naturally produced. The writino-s 
of Lyell taught me in youth that the present condition 
of our planet is the result, not of miracuk)us achieve- 
ment a few thousand years ago, but of the operation of 
natural causes during many millions of years. The 
"Vestiges of Creation" first led me to believe in man's 
natural origin ; and my own investigations in mesmer- 
ism, spiritualism, and psychometry, showed me the de- 
fectiveness of the theories advanced by Darwin, Huxley, 
and others of the natural selection school. Nobler men 
do not live than some of them are in many respects ; 
but when they seek to account for the existence of all 
organic forms, and entirely ignore the spiritual side of the 
universe, infinitely its most important side, their theories 



cannot be otherwise than most radically defective. Sci- 
entific men run in ruts, as theologians so generally do : 
hence the popularity of Darwinism to-day. But, with a 
knowledge of the spiritual in the universe and in man, 
there will come a great modification of the views of 
naturalists regarding the origin of organic forms. 

This work is written for the general reading public, and 
is made as plain as possible, that the average reader may 
understand its arguments, which I shall be very glad to 
see overthrown if they are not in agreement with abso- 
lute truth. 

Twenty-two years ago I had a discussion with Mr. Gar- 
field, now president-elect, on the subject of man's origin, 
many false reports of which have been published in some 
of his biographies, and in campaign documents in various 
Republican papers. In some of these I was represented 
as an atheist ; one who was completely discomfited, 
but who sought during the debate to inveigle his oppo- 
nent into the discussion of subjects not related to the 
matter in debate. Every statement is utterly false. In 
that debate I took the affirmative of the following propo- 
sition : " Man, animals, and vegetables are the product 
of spontaneous generation and progressive development ; 
and there is no evidence that there was any direct crea- 
tive act on this planet." Mr. Garfield took the negative, 
which required him to present evidence of direct creative 
action : this he neither did, nor attempted to do. If Mr. 


Garfield then believed in man's miraculous origin, as 
given in the book from which he took the texts for his 
sermons, he did not choose to defend it, for reasons best 
known to himself; if he did not believe it, he stood before 
the public in a very false position. Nearly or quite every 
argument used by me in the twenty speeches made in 
that debate are given in this volume, to which Mr. Gar- 
field was utterly unable satisfactorily to reply, and to 
which, I venture to say, neither he nor his friends can 
now reply. 

I trust the time will come in our Republic when it will 
not be considered necessary to lie, either to vilify or 
glorify a candidate for its presidency. 

Wellesley, Mass., Dec. 5, 1880. 



Natural Laws 17-46 

Vitality 17-26 

Variation 26-28 

Tendency 28-30 

Hereditary Transmission 30-32 

Modification 32-39 

Symmetry 39-41 

Natural Selection 41-46 

Pointers indicating Man's Natural Origin. 

Metamorphosis of Animals 46-58 

Anatomical Similarity ' 58-61 

Linking Forms 61-65 

Rudimentary Organs 66-70 

Paleontological Resemblance 70-72 

Geological Succession 72-74 

Insular Organic Resemblance 74-76 

Antiquity of Man 76-91 

Brutal Characteristics 9^-97 

Objections to Man's Natural Origin . . . 97-115 



Pointers indicating Man's Spiritual Origin . ii 5-187 

Man-ward Progress of Our Planet . . . 116-133 

The Race Development of Animals . . . 133-136 

Organic Distribution 136-146 

Persistency of Type 146-155 

Multiplicity of Human Origins .... 155-167 

Language 167-176 

Tendency to Beauty 176-178 

Human Faculties 178-179 

Spiritual Faculties • . 179-187 




We live in a world teeming with life. On the moun- 
tain-top, where winter reigns forever, with only snow for 
mould, there grow luxuriantly beautiful organic forms ; 
the deep sea caves, illuminated only by the light that has 
struggled through a thousand fathoms of water, are 
crowded with tenants ; sixteen hundred feet below the 
surface of the ground, in the darksome mine, lighted 
only by the occasional glimmer of a miner's candle, grow 
snow-white fungi on the massive timbers that support the 
shelving roof. Vegetable life : the pine clothing the 
mountain-side, the ash in the swamp, the chestnut on 
the ridge, the feathery palm, grass rolling in verdant 
waves, the fringing fern, the carpeting moss, the clinging 
lichen. Animal life : the humped buffalo feeding on the 
prairie, the lion lurking in the jungle, bears berrying 
among the bushes, sea-fowl overshadowing the rocky islet 



like a cloud, seals scrambling over the rocks, and fishes 
in shoals moving through the waters. Life within life : 
animalcules everywhere, too small to be seen by the 
unassisted eye, but feeding on every leaf, and swimming 
in every drop. Man, monarch of all, inquiring. Whence 
these various living forms, and how came I into exist- 
ence? One of the first questions of lisping infancy, and 
often the subject of greatest interest to the aged sage. 

Answers to these questions, however numerous, range 
themselves into two divisions ; those of the one ascrib- 
ing all organic existences to the operation of natural law, 
and the other to miracle. There is nothing that the 
study of natural science so profoundly impresses upon 
the human mind as the universality and continuous oper- 
ation of law. The more we become familiar with the 
heavens and the earth, the more clearly we see their 
varied phenomena to be the offspring of natural causes : 
indeed, the very existence of our planet and of similar 
bodies in space is now generally attributed to their 
action. Herschel, La Place, Comte, Humboldt, Mitch- 
ell, Agassiz, and, indeed, almost every scientific person 
familiar with the discoveries of astronomy and the facts 
of geology, have been led to believe that our planet, as 
well as the whole solar and astral systems, came into their 
present form by the operation of law. 

Whirled from the sun probably, as drops are from a 
revolving grindstone, our planet was, by the law of grav- 


itation, moulded into its present shape. As it cooled, a 
rocky crust formed upon its surface by the operation of 
the law of cohesion, which binds particles of matter 
together and forms solid bodies. Thus ice is produced 
in winter, and rock from the liquid vomited out of 
the volcano. In that rocky crust we find hundreds of 
minerals, produced by the law of chemical affinity, which 
unites unlike particles of matter, and by their union pro- 
duces new substances. Oxygen, an invisible gas, and 
calcium, a yellowish-white metal, combine, and form 
lime ; lime and sulphuric acid unite, and produce gyp- 
sum ; oxygen and silicon are changed into silica, which 
we see in the form of quartz and flint, and the more 
precious forms of agate, amethyst, and opal. Many of 
the minerals thus formed are in symmetrical shapes, such 
as cubes, octagons, and hexagonal prisms \ and in them 
we see the operation of another law, that of crystalliza- 
tion, by which mineral atoms, under favorable condi- 
tions, arrange themselves in beautiful order, so that when 
the substance is known, and the conditions surrounding 
it, we can tell with certainty the shape that it will assume. 
When we thus learn that law has been operating for 
millions of years, rounding the globe, forming its crust, 
producing the various minerals that constitute the sub- 
stance of that crust, and shaping them into symmetrical 
forms, what more natural than to believe that the domain 
of law extends over the organic productions that sue- 


ceeded these? The operation of cohesion depends 
upon the previous operation of gravitation ; for, unless 
gravitation brought the particles of matter near, cohesion 
could not bind them ; the operation of chemical affinity, 
in the production of mineral substances, depends upon 
the previous operation of cohesion ; no lime could be 
formed by the union of oxygen and calcium, if cohesion 
had not first brought the particles of calcium together ; 
neither could crystallization produce its forms, unless the 
other laws had pre-existed and pre-operated. Hence we 
have a natural pyramid, of which gravitation is the base, 
and crystallization the summit. 

If these are all natural, if no miraculous agency is 
concerned in their manifestation, why, when we advance 
but a step beyond, should we drag in miracle to account 
for what we behold? Immediately above crystallization 
is vegetable and animal life ; above organic life, sensa- 
tion ; and above sensation, reason ; and why may not 
these additions to the pyramid be just as natural as the 
underlying courses? 

Where shall we call in miracle to aid in its erection ? 
There seems to be no greater step from crystallization as 
seen on a window-pane in a frosty morning, or in the 
dendritic forms which the oxide of manganese occa- 
sionally assumes (Figs, i to 3), to the simplest forms of 
life, such as the jelly-like amoeba, than there is from the 
amorphous mass of quartz which cohesion produces, to 


the transparent hexagonal prism, which is the product of 

Why should we consider the crystal, with its gleaming 
sides, to be natural, — the product of law, — and call in 
the supernatural to account for a being so low in the scale 
of existence that it does not even possess a stomach, and 
appears to be as simple in structure as a drop of gum ? 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

Fig. I. Dendrite on Slate; 2. Dendrite on Chert; 3. Dendrite on Sienite. 

Breathe on the window-pane on a cold winter's morn- 
ing, and mark the result. Obedient to the law of crystal- 
lization, see how those particles of frozen moisture range 
themselves in beautiful order ! No regiment ever moved 
at the word of command with greater precision, no tree 
ever leafed or blossomed into more perfect beauty, than 
these arborescent crystals, that, but for their frequent 
appearance, would astonish and delight us. Examine 



the snow-flakes that drop by milHons at our feet (Fig. 4). 
When particles were first arranged into an organic being, 
is it not probable that the process was just as natural in 
that case as in the others? 

Nearly all intelligent persons now acknowledge that 
the rocks composing the earth's crust were formed by the 
operation of natural law ; granitic rocks by the slow cool- 
ing of fiery fluid matter under pressure ; metamorphic 

Fig. 4. Snow-Flakes. 

rocks from the decomposition and disintegration of the 
granitic, and the re-formation and crystallization of the 
material ; and the fossiliferous rocks by the agency of 
water, and the assistance of plants and animals. 

No person at all acquainted with geology now believes 
that seas, rivers, lakes, and mountains were made by 
miracle, though this notion was once very common. In 
accordance with law, the mountains were heaved, the 
ocean's bed hollowed, the valleys formed ; by its opera- 
tion we have sunlight and darkness, thunder, lightning, 
and storms ; by it rivers run, oceans ebb and flow, and 


the wide domain of life is under its continual jurisdic- 

But a few years ago the thunder's roll in the heavens 
was the voice of a personal deity ; the lightning's flash 
was the glare of his angry eye ; the tornado, that found a 
paradise before it and left a desert behind it, was the 
blast of his nostrils ; and the earthquake, that swallowed 
a city at a gulp, was his agent to punish a guilty peo- 
ple. Now, back of the lightning and thunder, we dis- 
cover the electricity that goes up with the ascending 
vapor : the intensely heated atmosphere precedes the 
hurricane, and beneath the earthquake lies the cooling 
globe. The oil that we burn in our lamps, the coal we 
consume in our stoves, the salt, the iron, the silver, and 
the gold, were all deposited where we find them by natu- 
ral causes. From the rounded acorn, a hundred of 
which may be carried in the pocket, grows by impercepti- 
ble degrees the oak, whose branches overspread an acre ; 
and from an almost invisible tgg a Lyell is developed, 
who reveals the secrets of the earth's deep foundations, 
and a Humboldt, before whom the whole scientific realm 
lies hke a map. And though provinces of nature have 
been repeatedly set aside, and we have been solemnly 
assured that they were exceptions to the rule, yet, as 
science has advanced, these have become so narrowed, 
we may be sure that universal intelligence will make all 
men eventually believers in the universal operation of 
natural law. 


These laws are, as I believe, but the modes of opera- 
tion of an unseen, but ever present, ever active, and 
what, for want of a better word, we must call intelligent, 
spirit ; but a spirit which, as far as we can tell by our 
own experience and that of our fellows, operates invaria- 
bly by law : and it is therefore most reasonable to suppose 
that all forms of life, including man, have come into 
existence by natural processes, which we may reasonably 
suppose are still at work upon our globe. 

The great mistake that many scientists as well as theo- 
logians appear to me to make, is in supposing that this is 
a dead world, in a dead universe, and only made alive by 
the operation of some exterior force. Darwin thinks that 
all living beings came from one or a few forms, " into 
which life was first breathed ; " thus giving us a dead 
world, into which an exterior power breathed life. If 
this was ever done, the great probability is that life was 
breathed into a man. Why should a miracle-worker 
bridge the chasm between death and life for an invisible 
monad, when the bridge would just as easily carry a 
man ? 

The difference between the universe such persons be- 
lieve in, and that in which we live, is great as the differ- 
ence between a natural tree and an artificial one. In the 
artificial tree, made in a day, a wooden trunk is fashioned, 
holes are bored, limbs inserted, twigs put into them, and 
leaves and fruit attached. It may appear beautiful ; but 


there is no life in its heart, no sap in its branches, no 
circulation through its leaves. It is no more a tree than 
the chair in which its maker sits. The natural tree re- 
quires centuries for its perfection, but it is alive from 
deepest radicle to topmost leaf. Break a branch, and 
every rootlet feels and resp)onds to the demand for mate- 
rial to repair damages. Day and night the living currents 
flow through its veins, bearing color to the blossom, honey 
to its cup, sugar to the fruit, and down for its cheek to 
ward off the attacks of the insect robber. Strip off every 
leaf, and it re-clothes itself; -and, though winter makes it 
bare a hundred times, a hundred times it renews its 
beauty. No less alive is the world in which we dwell, 
and the universe of Avhich it forms to us such an impor- 
tant part ; and it is this that rendered man a possibility 
upon our planet. 



The first agent that appears to have been, and to be 
concerned in the production of living beings, is Vitality. 
As there is a crystallizing force, that under favorable 
conditions produces crystals, without preceding crystallic 
germs from which they grew, so there appears to be 
a life-producing force, which, from what some call 
"dead matter," under favorable circumstances produces 


animals and vegetables in their simplest forms. Philip 
Henry Gosse, the well-known English naturalist, says, 
" If we take a bunch of leaves^ of the common sage for 
example, or a few twigs of hay, and, tying them into a 
bundle, suspend them in a jar of water, allowing the con- 
tents to remain untouched, but exposed to the air, some 
interesting results will follow. If we examine it on the 
second day we shall find a sort of scum covering the sur- 
face, and the whole fluid becoming turbid and slightly 
tinged with green. If now we take with the point of a 
quill or pin a minute drop pf this liquid, and examine it 
with a good microscope under a magnifying power of 
about two hundred diameters, we discover the water to 
be swarming with animal life." 

Wherever we place organic substances in decay, if the 
air in never so small a quantity can get at them, living 
beings will be produced. The common supposition is 
that germs or eggs floating in the atmosphere (frop into 
the vegetable infusions, and there find conditions favor- 
able for their development. This is of course possible : 
it is even probable. To know whether they do, or not, 
has been the aim of a great many distinguished experi- 
menters, who are about equally divided in opinion. 

In July, 1862, Professor Wyman of Harvard College, 
Cambridge, published in " The American Journal of 
Science " the results of thirty-seven experiments, under- 
taken for the purpose of determining whether living 


beings could be developed in a closely-sealed vessel, 
where previously neidier life nor the germs of life existed. 

The juice of beef and mutton, solutions of sugar and 
gelatine, and some other substances, were used in these 
experiments. In all of them the juice and solutions 
were exposed to the heat of boiling water, and in four of 
them to a heat of from 250° to 307°, or from 38° to 95° 
above the boihng-point, from fifteen minutes to two 
hours. In some cases the necks of the glass vessels con- 
taining the solutions were heated red-hot and twisted 
round before the exposure to the heat ; and in others, 
after boiling, the air was allowed to pass into the vessels 
through an iron tube filled with wires heated to red- 
ness, or through a glass tube filled with asbestos and 
platinum-sponge red-hot ; so that if any living germs had 
existed in the air they would have been destroyed in their 
passage. After being thus filled with air, these latter 
vessels were also hermetically sealed, and left in a warm 

In the course of a few days or weeks, life was found 
in all of them except two, and even in one that was 
heated to 307°, which is far beyond what experiment has 
demonstrated to be the limit of vital endurance. 

Professor Clark of Harvard College, who gives a de- 
tailed account of these experiments, says, ^'' The fact that 
the experiments with the sealed flasks proved, if any 
thing can be proved beyond the reach of change or 


improvement, is that beings with motion, undoubted 
living beings, were produced where life could not have 
existed previously.^ No failures to obtain living beings 
under any circumstances can overthrow the evidences of 
spontaneous generation furnished by such experiments as 

More recently Dr. Bastian has experimented under 
conditions still more unfavorable. He placed boiling 

^ \'^\^'^ -°-°'^ 


® ^5^'''^» ^'^ 

Fig. s. Some of the most common forms of life, supposed to have been produced 
spontaneously: Bacteria, Torulce, &c., 8oo times the natural size. (After 

solutions of sugar, carbonate of ammonia, phosphate of 
soda, and turnip-juice, in glass vessels ; and, while the 
steam from them was issuing from the necks of the ves- 
sels, they were hermetically sealed, and placed in an iron 
digester, where they were exposed for four hours to a 
heat of 295° Fahrenheit. Yet even under these extreme 

* Mind in Nature, p. a6. 



conditions minute organic forms were found in the liquids 
after a few days ^ (Figs. 5 and 6). 

Professor Cantoni of Pavia has obtained infusoria in 
the fluids of hermetically sealed flasks, after an exposure 
in a Papin's digester to a temperature of 242° F.^ 

Some remarks of Mr. Wallace regarding the experi- 
ments of Bastian, detailed in his " Beginnings of Life," 
are valuable. " Some of these comparative experiments 
are very suggestive. Hay infusion, for instance, exposed 

Fig. 6. Bacteria, Toruhe, and other infusoria, found in an infusion of commoa 
cress, in an air-tight flask, after it was heated to 272° F. for twenty minutes. 
Magnified 800 times. (After F)astian.) 

to air, produced abundance of bacteria in forty-eight 
hours, and these had increased considerably in sixty- 
eight hours. A similar infusion, sealed up after the 
fluid became cold, behaved in a similar manner. The 
same in a flask with a neck two feet long, and having 
eight flexures, remained unchanged for twelve days. A 
similar infusion, hermetically sealed during ebullition, on 
the other hand, showed turbidity in forty- eight hours, 

1 Beginnings of Life, vol. i., pp. 456-475. ^ Beginnings of Life, vol. i., p. 436. 


which subsequently increased, and bacteria, vibriones, 
leptothrix, and torulce were found in abundance. Here, 
then, whatever inference may be drawn from the first 
three experiments is entirely negatived by the fourth. 
Other experiments show that ammonia-tartrate solution, 
sealed in vacuo, at a temperature of 90° F., produced in 
eighty-four hours abundance of bacteria ; while the same 
solution, if boiled at 212° F., and exposed to the air in 
flasks covered with paper caps, remained quite clear for 
nine days ; yet as soon as it was inoculated with living 
bacteria, they increased rapidly, and produced turbidity. 
These, and a number of other equally suggestive experi- 
ments, indicate that the conditions favorable to the oiigin 
and to the increase of these low forms, are not always 
identical. Both are very complex ; and we cannot avoid 
the conclusion that the advocates of the universal germ 
theory have been somewhat hasty in founding their doc- 
trine upon insufiicient data, for the most part of a nega- 
tive character." 

Thousands of experiments have been tried, first and 
last, to settle this question whether living beings are pro- 
duced without parentage ; yet, in the estimation of many 
eminent scientists, it remains undecided yet. Pasteur, 
Tyndall, Huxley, and others, do not believe we have any 
evidence of life without pre-existent life to produce it ; 
while on the other side we have Bastian, the author of 
"The Beginnings of Life," Clark, Wyman, some of whose 


experiments have been given, Draper, the well-known 
physiologist, Wallace, and Owen, the greatest hving com- 
parative anatomist. 

The fact that life abounds wherever conditions are 
favorable for its development, that even hot springs have 
their tenants, that every island is peopled, and every lake 
and stream has living forms adapted to its waters, indi- 
cates that life as naturally develops by virtue of inherent 
law, as crystals, under favorable conditions, from mineral 

In the production of crystals we see many of the 
phenomena which are displayed in the production and 
growth of organized beings. All crystals are formed 
of small, angular solids, as all organized bodies are of 
cells. There has been a germ controversy regarding the 
formation of crystals, as there is now one regarding the 
formation of living beings ; some chemists supposing 
that minute crystals floating in the air were the cause of 
crystallization in mineral solutions.^ As animals can be 
modified by surrounding conditions, so can crystals. 
" Common salt usually crystallizes in the form of a cube ; 
but, if urine be present in the solution, it takes the fonii 
of the octahedron."- When carbonate of lime is slowly 
precipitated in viscid solutions of gum, instead of the 
particles arranging themselves in octahedral or hexagonal 
crystals, the combined particles assume the form of 

* Beginnings of Life, vol. i., p. 300. ^ Youmans' New Chemistry, p. 50. 


calculi, with distinct concentric layers. Crystals can 
even make repairs, so that when an angle is broken, it 
will be replaced. Mr. Rainey, quoted by Bastian,^ tells 
us of the appearance of the first visible globules, when 
carbonate of lime is precipitated in a viscid solution. 
" The appearance which is first visible is a faint cloudi- 
ness ; the particles are too small to be seen by the micro- 
scope ; in a few hours exquisitely minute globes appear, 
too small to be measured, then dumb-bell-like bodies 
and egg-shaped particles with them, and these gradually 
enlarge." In fact, the appearances are at first almost 
identical with those that are seen in vegetable infusions, 
as organisms gradually form in them. 

Tyndall's experiments seem to many persons to de- 
monstrate that all living beings must come from germs. 
He placed in sixty glass flasks an infusion of turnip-juice. 
The ends of the flasks were drawn out to a fine point ; 
and, after the infusion had boiled for five minutes, the 
small end was closed by melting the glass with a blow- 
pipe. They were taken to the Alps, in Switzerland, in 
the month of July. The ends of four of them had been 
broken on the way, and these were full of life ; the rest, 
except two that were destroyed, were all clear. The fifty- 
four were exposed to the sun by day, and placed in a warm 
kitchen at night : four were casually broken, but the fifty 
remained perfectly clear ; there was no life in them. 

1 Beginnings of Life, vol. i., p. 303. 


Then twenty-three of the fifty were opened in a hay-loft, 
and the remaining twenty-seven on the edge of a diff 
overlooking a glacier. All the flasks were then placed in 
a warm situation near a stove, with the necks open ; 
and in three days twenty-one out of the twenty-three 
opened in the hay-loft were filled with living beings ; 
while after three weeks those opened near the glacier 
were without a trace of life. 

It is evident that in this case there was something in 
the air of the hay-loft that was favorable to the develop- 
ment of life ; but it by no means follows that this con- 
sisted of germs or eggs. The experiments of Wyman, 
Mantagazzi, Bastian, and a host of others, many of 
whom have had much more practice than Tyndall, who 
have found living beings in sealed glass vessels after they 
had been exposed to a heat much more than sufficient to 
kill germs if they had existed, can never be negatived by 
such experiments as Tyndall's, were they multipHed a 

In the flask of the experimental philosopher to-day we 
have, apparently, on a small scale, what existed on the 
earth during the early geologic periods on a large scale ; 
and, if living beings are produced to-day by the opera- 
tion of natural causes, there is no need to call in miracle 
to account for their appearance long ago. 

It may be objected that there existed no juice of beef 
or mutton, infusions of vegetable matter, nor solutions of 


minerals produced from organic substances, in the early 
condition of our planet, as there were in the sealed flasks 
of the experimenters. True ; but there were warm 
oceans, containing matter in an extremely fine state of 
subdivision from the action of water on rock for ages, 
and containing as much life as infusions do when sub- 
jected for hours to a heat of 295°. The Hquids in the 
flasks, we may reasonably suppose, are only favorable to 
the development of life, because they give us the neces- 
sary components of organic bodies in an extremely 
divided state. In both cases the matter is destitute of 
life ; and the production of living beings in unorganized 
matter, to-day, reveals to us, apparently, how it came 
into existence in the beginning. 


Vital force, however, appears only to produce life in 
extremely minute forms ; and these, by the ordinary 
process of generation, could only continue to produce 
similar forms. There must have been a power and a 
disposition to deviate from the original stock, or the first 
living beings would have perpetuated only forms similar 
to themselves, and filled the world forever. But there is 
in nature a disposition to vary, or a law of Variation. 
We say like produces like ; and this is true, but like pro- 
duces unlike, also : the boy is like his father ; but no boy 
is exactly like his father, nor girl like her mother ; and in 


most large families, and some small ones, there will be a 
child of whom the father asks, "Who does that child 
take after ? I am sure it is no one on our side of the 
house ; " and the mother is equally sure that it is no one 
on her side of the house. A variation in the offspring 
has made its appearance, for which the progenitors are 
unable to account. The seeds of apples and peaches, 
as we know, produce fruits that differ from those of the 
parent trees. By taking advantage of the tendency in 
plants to sport into varieties, our gardeners are constantly 
producing new flowers and improved fruits. 

Dr. Hooker, quoted by Lyell, says, "The element of 
mutability pervades the whole vegetable kingdom ; no 
class, no order, nor genus of more than a few species, 
claims absolute exemption from it." So strong is the 
tendency to variation, that seedlings from fruit of the 
same tree and in the same season differ at times consid- 
erably. Col. Le Couteur, who paid great attention to 
wheat-culture, found that the grains of wheat in the same 
ear differed so greatly that he was compelled, in his 
attempts to grow the best, to select each grain separately.^ 
Van Mons, Darwin informs us, " reared a multitude of 
varieties from the seed of one grape-vine, which was 
completely separated from all others, so that there could 
not, at least in this generation, have been any crossing ; 
and the seedlings presented the analogues of everv kind, 

^ Animals and Plants under Domestication, vol. i., p. 378. 


and differed in almost every possible character, both in 
the fruit and foliage." ^ 

In Darwin's Origin of Species we are told of two 
flocks of Leicester sheep, kept by Mr. Buckley and Mr. 
Burgess, and purely bred from the original stock of Mr. 
Bakewell for upwards of fifty years. There is not a 
suspicion existing in the mind of any one at all ac- 
quainted with the subject, that the owner of either of 
them has deviated in any one instance from the pure 
blood of Mr. Bakewell's flock ; and yet the difference 
between the sheep possessed by these two gentlemen is 
so great that they have the appearance of being quite 
different varieties.^ 


We cannot, however, regard variation as a creator. It 
may change the color of a snail's shell, but how could it 
give to the snail a fin ? it may modify the tail of a fish, 
but we cannot conceive of its forming a foot ; in a man 
it may give a longer finger or toe, but it could not put an 
eye at the end of his finger, or an ear at the end of his 
toe. Variation, to be of service in the production of the 
higher forms of organic being, from the simple forms 
spontaneously produced, must operate in a definite direc- 
tion, and there must be underlying it the power to push 

^ Animals and Plants under Domestication, vol. i., p. 401. 
2 Origin of Species, p. 39. 


the organic form subject to it to a more advanced stage. 
How could an animal destitute of wings vary until it 
became a bird? Suppose it to be an amphibian, like a 
frog, variation undirected would be as likely to operate in 
an infinite variety of ways as in the direction of feathers 
and wings. Suppose a variation in a frog in the direction 
of the bird, it could hardly fail to be a detriment ; and the 
animal in which it appeared, in the struggle for life, would 
be more likely to die than to live and perpetuate the 
bird-like peculiarity. Pin-feathers on a frog would nei- 
ther help it to swim, dive, nor jump ; and, the more 
like wings its forelegs were, the less use they would 
be in administering to its necessities. If the first step in 
the direction of a bird could be taken, for which no 
cause can be imagined, how could it be retained till the 
chance came among an infinite number of another varia- 
tion concurring with the previous one, and pushing the 
animal a step nearer to the bird? The chances are 
almost -infinite against the possibility of such a second 
step being taken. How long, by any hap-hazard process, 
would it be before an amphibian was transformed into a 
bird ? Millions of concurring steps, balancing each other, 
would be necessary ; and it would seem that the whole 
time of our planet's life would be exhausted before more 
than the merest beginning could be made. Behind 
variation must be Tendency. Without the eyes of tend- 
ency, variation would wander bhndly in an aimless maze 


forever ; with this for a guide it has unerringly struck the 
road to fish and reptile, beast and man. Tendency com- 
pels variation, and variation in certain directions ; form- 
ing steps by which life advances to the highest forms. 


But, unless these varieties could be transmitted to the 
descendants of their possessors, they would die with them, 
and never influence their progeny. Variation has be- 
come operative in producing advanced forms of life by 
the influence of another law, — that of Hereditary Trans- 
mission. The existence of this law is known to nearly 
all, but the potency of its influence is known to but few. 
An English paper informs us that a man six feet six 
inches in height was summoned before a court ; and the 
questions asked him on that occasion revealed the fact 
that his father was six feet three inches, his mother six 
feet, and his four brothers and sisters averaged six feet 
three inches. 

The Jew has a strongly aquiline nose, and this nose is 
represented on the faces of Jews in Egyptian paintings 
that are more than three thousand years old. The very 
nose that figures on the face of the Jew that walks down 
Broadway to-day, adorned the countenance of Abraham 
as he sat at the door of his tent in the days of old. 

Early in the last century a child was born in Suffolk, 
Eng., with semi-horny excrescences of almost half an 


inch in length thickly growing all over his body. The 
peculiarity was transmitted to his children, and was last 
heard of in a third generation. 

The persistence of mental traits, in consequence ap- 
parently of the operation of inheritance, is remarkable. 
As Ribot remarks, " The French of the nineteenth cen- 
tury are, in fact, the Gauls described by Caesar. In the 
Commentaries, in Strabo, in Diodorus Siculus, we find all 
the essential traits of our national character : love of 
arms, taste for every thing that glitters, extreme levity 
of mind, incurable vanity, address, great readiness of 
speech, and disposition to be carried away by phrases. 
There are in Caesar some observations which might have 
been written yesterday. 'The Gauls,' says he, 'have a 
love of revolution ; they allow themselves to be led by 
false reports into acts they afterwards regret, and into 
decisions on the most important events ; they are de- 
pressed by reverses ; they are as ready to go to war with- 
out cause as they are weak and powerless in the hour of 
defeat.' " ^ 

So strong is this law of heredity, that even accidental 
variations and artificial deformities are at times trans- 
mitted. Ribot tells us that a man whose right hand had 
suffered an injury had one of his fingers badly set. He 
had several sons, each of whom had the same finger 
crooked. He quotes Quatrefages, who tells us that the 

1 Heredity, p. no. 


Esquimaux cut off the tails of the dogs they harness to 
their sledges, and the pups are often born tailless.-^ The 
tendency to transmit a perfect form is, however, much 
stronger than the tendency to transmit deformities, or 
there would be no necessity for the Jew to practise cir- 
cumcision, or the descendants of many generations of 
shavers to torment their faces with a razor. 

By the operation of the law of vitality, the waters of the 
early oceans were caused to swarm with minute living 
beings. By the law of variation, governed by innate 
tendency, these commenced, as soon as they began to 
propagate, to deviate from the ancestral form toward 
higher organic forms ; and, by the law of heredity, the 
deviations were transmitted, and new and more advanced 
forms of life came into existence. 

The law of hereditary transmission appears at first to 
be antagonistic to the law of variation ; for, if it operated 
perfectly, there could be no deviation from the parental 
form ; but tendency, operating with variation, overrides 
heredity, as the power of the magnet upholds its arma- 
ture contrary to the operation of gravity. 


In addition to these is another important law, that of 
Modification. A pine that will grow in a temperate cli- 
mate to one hundred and fifty feet, on the timber-line of 

^ Heredity, p. 9, 


the mountains is no higher than a man's head, though its 
trunk may be as thick as his body. In the Southern 
States the Virginia cherry grows to the height of one 
hundred feet, but at the Great Slave Lake it is but five 
feet high. The service-tree in Western Virginia is fre- 
quently eighty feet high : on the Rocky Mountains, in 
Wyoming, it is only a bush. In all these cases, surround- 
ing conditions have modified the plant subjected to them. 
The cabbage in the West Indies grows to be a small 
tree. Animals living in high mountain regions, where the 
air is rare, have lungs adapted to the atmosphere they 
are compelled to breathe. Men in such countries have 
broader shoulders and longer trunks than those living 
near the sea-level. Lyell tells us of some Englishmen 
who were carrying on mining operations at a high level 
in Mexico, who sent to England for greyhounds of the 
best breed, that they might hunt the hares which abound- 
ed in the country. It was found, however, that, owing to 
the rarity of the air, the greyhounds were compelled to 
lie down and gasp for breath, while the hares ran off with 
ease and left them. But the whelps of these greyhounds, 
when grown up, could run down the Mexican hares just 
as easily as their progenitors had done English hares ; for 
they had become modified to suit the conditions that 
surrounded them.^ 

Of the cabbage and the cauliflower Lyell says, " A bit- 

1 Principles of Geology, p. 594. 


ter plant, with wavy sea-green leaves, has been taken 
from the sea-side, where it grew like wild charlock, has 
been transplanted into the garden, lost its saltness, and 
has been metamorphosed into two distinct vegetables, as 
unlike each other as each is to the parent plant, — the 
red cabbage and the cauliflower."^ I suppose there are 
persons, who, if asked to name which of all the plants was 
most likely to have been specially created for the service 
of man, would unhesitatingly reply, the cabbage ; and yet 
the cabbage has been made by man, out of a plant very 
unlike the modified product. 

But Lyell remarks, '' It is easy to show that these ex- 
traordinary varieties could seldom arise, and could never 
be perpetuated in a wild state for many generations, under 
any imaginable combination of accidents." They show 
the wonderful power of surrounding conditions to mould 
the organic forms subjected to them ; and these are suffi- 
cient, as we know, to produce differences as great as 
those that distinguish species ; but, apart from innate 
tendency, it is, I think, extremely difficult to pass beyond 
this step in a progressive direction. 

All large caves have tenants which have become modi- 
fied by the peculiarities of their underground life. Pro- 
fessor Schiodte discovered, in three Austrian caves, the 
proteus, a wood-louse, and three kinds of beetles, all 
blind, or the eyes reduced to rudimentary specks. 

^ Principles of Geology, p. 588, 


In the Mammoth Cave is a bhnd fish, which has on 
the exterior no visible eyes. We are told by some that 
here is evidence demonstrative that all animals were 
miraculously formed for the places that they occupy. 
The blind-fish was made for the Mammoth Cave ; and 
the Creator, knowing that it would live in absolute dark- 
ness, made it destitute of eyes. When, however, we ex- 
amine the almost transparent blind-fish, we see that this 
explanation of its origin does not at all harmonize with 
the facts. In the head of the blind-fish, beneath where 
its eyes should be, two small dark objects appear under 
the skin : these are eyes ; and attached to them is the 
optic nerve, leading to the optic lobe of the brain, as in 
fishes having full possession of sight. How shall we 
account for this? Consider the blind-fish a miraculous 
creation, and its peculiar construction can never be ex- 
plained. It was evidently modified into its present pecul- 
iar form. The Mammoth Cave was hollowed by a stream 
that once ran upon the surface, and was occupied by fish, 
as our streams are to-day. This stream found a crevice 
in the lime-rock, and down it went, introducing its fish to 
a life of darkness. Conditions were so unfavorable that 
most of them perished, but this survived. For want of 
the stimulus of light, the eye became smaller. Tie up 
your right arm, and never use it, and it will shrivel to 
half the size of the left in a twelvemonth. It transmitted 
this diminished eye to its descendants born in this cave ; 


their eyes became smaller still, for want of stimulus, and 
retreated into the head ; and, in process of time, the skin 
covered the eye, and the blind-fish of the Mammoth 
Cave was produced. 

Many insects and crustaceans are found in this cave, 
in some of which the eyes are absent, and in others they 
are reduced to mere specks. Fig. 7 represents a carabid 

Fig. 7. Anophthalmus Telkampfii. (After Packard.) 

beetle, first found in the Mammoth Cave by Tell Kampf, 
from whom it receives its specific name. It is destitute 
of wings and totally bhnd, and has doubtless become 
wingless and blind in consequence of the disuse of wings 
and eyes resulting from its cave life. The Hadenoeais 
subterraneus (Fig. 8) is a wingless grasshopper, found 
also in the Mammoth Cave. I caught it, or one closely 
allied to it, in Wyandotte Cave, Indiana. Its antennae 
and legs are proportionally longer than those of its rela- 
tions found on the surface, probably because they had to 
do duty for eyes. In the Wyandotte Cave of Indiana 



is also a blind fish, almost, if not absolutely, identical 
with that of the Mammoth Cave. The caves are too 
far apart for the fishes to have descended from the same 
modified progenitors; but the conditions surrounding 
them, after they were swept into the respective caves, 
being almost identical, they have been modified into 
similar beings. 

I have seen a tadpole four years old, kept in a drug- 

FiG. 8. Hadenoecus Subterraneus. (After Packard.) 

gist's store, out of the sunlight : conditions were un- 
favorable for its perfect development; and, although a 
giant, it was only a gigantic tadpole. 

The notornis and the apteryx are small, wingless birds, 
found in New Zealand ; and the dinornis, palapteryx and 
aptornis were wingless birds that once lived there, but are 
now only known by their fossil remains. These birds, 
living in a country where beasts that might prey upon 
them were unknown, and where flight was unnecessary 


for food, their wings were so little employed that they 
became too small for flight, and by disuse have so dimin- 
ished, that in some living species the wing is only repre- 
sented by a horny claw. 

External surroundings cannot, however, create hands, 
feet, eyes, ears, and brains. The cavern darkness has 
taken away the exterior eyes of the a7)iblyopsis ; but light 
has failed to give eyes to the protozoa, though they have 
been on the planet since the Laurentian times. Webbed 
feet are very useful to water-birds, but the water never 
made them. The water-ousel lives almost entirely in the 
water, like a duck ; it feeds on shell-fish and water 
insects ; its food and habits are almost the same as the 
grebe ; its ancestors lived a similar life for as many years 
as naturalists have been acquainted with them, and prob- 
ably for a million years before that : yet its feet are no 
more webbed than those of a sparrow. There must be 
tendency before formation. An idiot can fire a palace of 
beauty, and leave only a pile of ashes ; but to build one 
requires an architect. 

From the dawn of life upon our planet, animals and 
plants have been surrounded by constantly improving 
conditions : the intense heat has diminished, poisonous 
gases have been eliminated from the atmosphere, the 
land surface of the globe has increased, and, accom- 
panying this advance, organic forms have improved, as 
geology demonstrates, with every new group of rocks 



deposited. Had sunlight departed from the world in the 
Silurian age, birds, beasts, and men had never appeared 
upon our planet. Had the climate and atmosphere of 
the carboniferous period remained, it is not probable that 
man could ever have been developed here. The power 
to produce a frog exists in the tadpole, but light is essen- 
tial for its operation ; and thus there lay in the fcetal 
globe the power to produce a man, but the improve- 
ments of millions of years were essential to mould him 
to his present form, and it will require millions more to 
perfect him. 


Another law that has operated in the production of 
organic beings is the law of Symmetry. Lop off the 

Fig. 9. Fig. 95. 

Clay-Stones from the banks of the Connecticut River. (Original.) 

branches of a young tree, till there is nothing left but a 
bare stick, and soon a branch will grow to the right. 



another to the left, a new stem will shoot upward, and 
branches will symmetrically develop from this, and the 
tree is a thing of beauty once more. The very clay 
stones (Figs. 9, 9^^, 10, 10^), that grow in some clay beds, 
beneath the water-level of their locality, manifest as 
perfect symmetry as the crystals in the rocks below them, 
the flowers that bloom above them, and the human beings 
that see and admire them. The right hemisphere of 

Fig. 10. Fig. 105. 

Clay-Stones, foot of Mount Tom, Mass. (Original.) 

man's brain corresponds with his left ; and he thus has 
two brains, as he has two nostrils, two eyes, and two ears. 
Almost every part of his body is duplicate. 

Even diseases are symmetrical. Mr. James Paget, 
quoted by Mivart in his " Genesis of Species," referring 
to symmetrical diseases, writes, "A certain morbid 
change of structure on one side of the body is repeated 
in the exactly corresponding part of the other side." 


He figures a diseased lion's pelvis from the Museum of 
the College of Surgeons, and says of it, " Multiform as 
the pattern is, in which the new bone, the product of 
some disease, comparable with a human rheumatism, is 
deposited, — a pattern more complex and irregular than 
the spots upon a map, — there is not one spot or line on 
one side which is not represented, as exactly as it would 
be in a mirror, on the other. The likeness has more 
than daguerreotype exactness." 

Symmetry, then, is one of the tools used by the omni- 
present spirit in moulding the frame of man ; and we are 
symmetrical because the law of symmetry has presided 
over the upbuilding of our structure. 


Then, we have the law of Natural Selection, so ably 
elucidated by Charles Darwin. I do not believe that it 
has been as effectual in its operation as Darwin and the 
Darwinians suppose ; but, that it has assisted in produ- 
cing our present forms of animal and vegetable life, there 
can be no doubt. It is the gardener that trims the tree 
of life, lops off the imperfect branches, and destroys the 
sprouts that might divert its energies ; but it is not the 
creator that gave life and form to the tree, and sent 
through its veins the invigorating sap. 

Life pushes into the field continually more beings than 
can possibly survive. A cod will produce at a birth from 


four to nine millions ; a full-grown elm will perfect in one 
season a hundred million seeds ; a pair of rabbits in a 
hundred and fifty years, if they were unrestrained, would 
stock the entire land-surface of the globe. The result of 
this superabundance of life is a grand struggle for exist- 
ence, in which the weak, the ill-formed, the bad-condi- 
tioned, are killed off, and those animals and plants most 
in harmony with their surroundings survive, and perpet- 
uate their harmonious organization to their posterity. In 
a fish, that which assists it in the struggle may be dense- 
ness of scale, length of fin, or length of tooth, enabhng it 
to distance its pursuers or hold its slippery prey ; in the 
bird it may be length of wing, strength of claw or bill, or 
some modification of color, by which it baffles the keen 
eyes of its enemies : whatever gives an animal or plant 
the advantage, puts a weapon into its hands, with which 
it kills those who do not possess it, and it then appropri- 
ates the place for itself, and entails it for those of its 
posterity who possess the same advantages. Thus the 
most perfect types of organized being are preserved by 
a general providence, that watches with sleepless eye, and 
works for the benefit of the whole. 

In Scotland we find a red grouse feeding among the 
red heather of the mountains and moors. "Here is a 
special providence," says a believer in the miraculous : 
"the hawks and the eagles, that hunt by sight, cannot 
see the red grouse among the equally red heather, and 


thus it escapes." But suppose that originally grouse 
were white, and one, by the operation of the law of vari- 
ation, was born red : the hawks and eagles being unable 
to see it, it escapes, and gives birth, by the law of inherit- 
ance, to birds of its own color ; they also escape ; the 
white ones being all the time weeded out, in consequence 
of being so conspicuous, the grouse are at length all red 
as we find them. Here is a providence that cares for 
hawks and eagles as well as grouse : it watches over flea 
and philosopher, and works for the perfection of every 
living creature. By the operation of these and doubtless 
many other laws, through the immense ages of our 
planet's past, life has advanced, as a tree advances to 
fruit, and we are here as the grand result. 

" But do you mean to say," inquires an objector, 
" that these blind laws, to which you have referred, could 
ever make the seeing eye, the hearing ear, the thinking 
brain, and the soulful man?" Most emphatically no! 
But the laws are by no means blind : they are to me the 
modes of operation of the all-seeing and all-knowing 
spirit, without whose direction a man could no more be 
produced from the " insensate clod," than a bowlder roll- 
ing down a mountain torrent could be fashioned into a 
perfect copy of the Venus de Medici by the accidental 
blows of the rocks with which it came in contact. 
Grant a law of life : what should cause this life to be 
manifested in a sexual form and be thus perpetuated? 


Grant a law of variation : mere variation would operate 
to make an animal smaller as well as larger, less perfect 
as well as more perfect, to form an eye behind as well as 
before, on the tail as likely as the head ; it would start a 
nose on the hand as readily as the face, an ear on the 
foot, and develop a tongue between the fingers as readi- 
ly as between the jaws. How long would it be before 
undirected variation could produce a perfect eye in an 
animal otherwise bhnd ? About as long as it would take 
for the letters of the alphabet thrown promiscuously down 
to arrange themselves into a beautiful poem. 

But we cannot leave these laws out of sight, nor deny 
their operation. I hear two men discussing about the 
way in which babies become men. " I tell you, they do 
it," says one. "Who do it?" says the other. "Why, 
the fairies." — "Do what?" — "Why, transform the ba- 
bies into men." — "What have the fairies to do with it, 
pray?" — "They have every thing to do with it, and 
without their influence such a thing as a man could never 
be." — "But how do you suppose the fairies accomplish 
this work?" — " I will tell you: you have noticed that 
babies sleep a great deal? " — " Certainly." — " Well, 
that is when it is done : they pass inside the child, for 
you know they can go anywhere and do any thing ; they 
enlarge the brain, expand the skull, extend the limbs, 
and, in short, do all that is needed to be done to make 
the infant into a man." — "But did you ever see this pro- 


cess, which you thus describe ? " — " Oh, no ! the fairies, 
you know, are invisible, and therefore we can never see 
them at work." — "But how, then, do you know that the 
fairies do all this?" — "Because there is no other way in 
which we can account for such a wonderful change as the 
transformation of a baby into a man." — " I regard your 
story as a monstrous fable." — " How, then, do you think 
that babies are changed into men?" — "Well, I do not 
profess to know entirely how it is done, but there are 
some things connected with the matter that I do know : 
you have noticed that babies frequently require nourish- 
ment?" — "Yes." — "Well, that has a great deal to do 
with it. If they did not take food into the system, they 
would die, and could not become men. You must have 
noticed also that they breathe : this is of great impor- 
tance ; and if they were prevented, for even a few min- 
utes, death would be the consequence. They sleep also : 
and this is important ; lack of sleep would end in lack of 
life, and the transformation of the baby into the man 
would cease." Then I hear the first exclaim, " But do 
you mean to say that blind eating, drinking, sleeping, 
and breathing, can change an utterly helpless and know- 
nothing infant, weighing eight or ten pounds, into the 
strong and hearty man, who masters the world, scales the 
heavens, and makes all the forces of nature minister to 
his needs?" To which the 'second replies, "Oh, no ! I 
do not say that : more than all else, infinitely more, is 


the spirit of the child derived from the father and the 
mother. It is this that presides over its organization, 
from the time it is an ail-but invisible dot till it is born, 
and then makes eating, drinking, breathing, and sleeping 
subservient to the building-up of the wondrous structure 
that we call a man. 

So the universal spirit, never for an instant absent from 
the world, has operated by means of these laws during 
millions of years, and through myriads of forms, till at 
length it was able to say, '" I have made a man, but mil- 
lions of years will even yet be necessary to finish him." 




In addition to these laws, whose existence can be 
demonstrated and their operation seen, there are what I 
call pointers, which, although they do not demonstrate 
that man came into existence naturally, and without the 
operation of miracle, yet they point very significantly in 
that direction. The first pointer is the metamorphosis of 
animals, or the change of form that they undergo from 
the time they are conceived until they are fully formed. 
All animals are alike to the eye when in their primitive 
egg state ; and, in passing to their mature form, all the 



higher animals go through a series of significant changes. 
J. W. Draper, the well-known physiologist, says, " All ani- 
mals proceed from eggs as simple in structure as the 
simplest infusoria produced spontaneously, and no art can 
distinguish one of the highest class from one of the 
lowest." Professor Clark, of Harvard College, Cambridge, 
says, " All animals, from the monad, the gum-drop amoe- 
ba, up to man, at one time cannot possibly be distin- 
guished from one another. . . . You could not tell the 

Fig. II. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. 

Fig. h. — Primitive Egg of a Trout. Fig. 12. — Primitive Egg of a Hen. 

Fig. 13. — Primitive Human Egg. (After Haeckel.) 

one from the other any more readily than you could dis- 
tinguish a drop of water from Cochituate Lake from that 
of Mystic River." (Fig. 11, Fig. 12, and Fig. 13.) So, 
it is highly probable that man's original ancestors, in the 
earliest ocean containing organized life, were equally 
undistinguishable from the progenitors of other types of 
life that swarmed in the ocean with them. 

The mosquito is first an ^gg, then a worm ; at last an 
insect on filmy wings, " blowing its shrill trumpet," as it 


prepares to attack us for our blood. The silkworm is 
an ^gg, then a worm, eating and growing from thirty 
to forty days, when it weaves its enclosing case, and 
passes into the chrysalis state. While in this condition 
strange transformations take place : its jaws are changed 
into a coiled tongue, its stomach is shortened, compound 
eyes take the place of simple eyes, antennae make their 
appearance upon the forehead, wings spring from the 
sides, and out issues the queenly moth. 

The frog commences its existence, like all other ani- 
mals, with the ^gg, as we see them in spring in the pools 
by the wayside, surrounded by jelly. In about a month 
it leaves the ^gg, but it is in a very imperfect condition. 
The head is quite large ; but there are no traces of ears, 
nostrils, lungs, or even gills. About the fourth day after 
its birth, ears and nostrils make their appearance, and 
little branching gills. The mouth is soon furnished with 
a horny beak, and the tail is lengthened and widened : 
the animal is now a tadpole, and we should call it a fish 
if we did not know what it was destined to become. It 
breathes by means of gills, as the fish does, propels itself 
through the water with its long, broad, flat tail, as the fish 
also does, and 'feeds upon the plants that grow in its 
watery abode : there is no trace of either internal or 
external limbs. In the hinder part of the body two bud- 
like swellings appear, and two like them in the front, 
which develop into limbs, when the tail is gradually 


absorbed, and at length disappears from sight. While 
these changes are taking place, others, less observable 
but more important, are going on. The mouth increases 
in size and gape ; the horny lips are replaced by teeth ; 
the intestines are shortened ; the gills dwindle in size ; the 
lungs, that before were solid and small, enlarge and be- 
come cavernous ; the fish-heart is modified, a third cham- 
ber being developed by the expansion of one of the 
large arteries ; the vessels that convey blood to the gills 
are gradually suppressed, the work of the gills is at 
length forever done ; the water is no longer a suitable 
place of abode ; the frog gasps, takes its first full breath, 
leaps upon the land, and croaks its joy at finding itself in 
such a superior condition. (Fig. 14.) But the other 
day it was a fish feeding upon water-plants, with a 
horny beak ; and now it is a frog, with rows of teeth, 
a changed stomach, and a changed appetite, and woe 
to the fly that comes within the range of its glutinous 
tongue ! 

Why is the insect first a worm, and the frog first a 
fish ? Geologically we have reason to beheve that worms 
preceded insects, and fishes preceded frogs, by milHons 
of years ; and it appears that every animal shows us in 
its development the road over which its ancestors trav- 
elled during the early ages of the world. 

What is true of all animals below man is equally true 
of him. The existence of man on this planet com- 



mences with an ovum, or tgg, formed in the body of the 
female, which is about yjy of an inch in diameter, or 
barely visible to the naked eye. It contains a yolk, con- 

FiG. 14. — Metamorphosis of the Frog. i. The embryo frog in the egg; 2. At a 
more advanced stage; 3. Tadpole four days after being hatched; 4. At a more 
advanced stage; 5. A stage farther, when its gills have dwindled; 6. The per- 
fect tadpole; 7. The gills are now gone, and hind limbs are seen; 8. Frog nearly 

sisting of a multitude of granules ; and in this is a trans- 
parent vesicle which is called the germ vesicle, and this 
contains a small round dark spot called the germ-spot. 
(Fig. 15.) 



^^'hen impregnated by the sperm-cells of the male, the 

Fig. 15. — The Human Egg greatly enlarged. (After Haeckel.) 

germ vesicle and germ-spot disappear, and the ^gg then 

Fig. 16. — The impregnated INIammalian Egg. (After Haeckel.) 

presents the appearance of a drop of gum or speck of 
jelly (Fig. 16), resembling the simplest forms of life 
known to us, the amoeba. 



Soon after its formation a round kernel is formed in its 
interior, which occupies the centre of the cell ; and in 
the centre of that is a small dot called the nucleolus. 
This cell, the product of both parents, in which the first 

Fig. 17. — The Mammalian Egg shortly after impregnation, when it Is called the 

Parent Cell. (After Haeckel.) 

germ of the future individual appears, is called the parent 
cell. (Fig. 17.) 

The next step in the evolution of the man is the 
division of the kernel into two, just as the amoeba divides 
to form a new animal. (Fig. 18.) These repel each other, 
separate, and attract the matter contained in the parent 
cell, and thus form two cells, which contain, as the first 
did, a nucleus and central dot or nucleolus. The cells 
soon change from a globular to an oval form, (Fig. 19.) 
One of the Mvo is larger and more transparent than the 



Other ; and, as the cells continue to divide, the larger and 
lighter increase at a quicker rate than the cells produced 

Fig. i8. — An Amoeba in the act of reproduction. A. The whole Amoeba: B. The 
Amoeba dividing; C a and Cb. The two halves, now independent individuals. 
(After Haeckel.) 

from the smaller and darker, till they form what is called 

Fig. 19. — Gjmmencem.ent of Cleavage in the Mammalian Egg. (Haeckel.) 

a morula or mulberry mass, consisting of a multitude of 
small cells, of which the organs of the future animal are 



to be built. The larger, lighter, and more active cells 
form eventually a layer, called the animal layer, from 
which the skin, the spine, the spinal marrow, the brain, 
and the entire bony skeleton, are produced ; the smaller, 
darker, and more sluggish cells also form a layer, called 
the vegetative layer, from which the organs of digestion 
and reproduction are made. 

Fig. 20. — The Primitive Trace. 

These layers form a circular germ-area, the centre of 
which is occupied by a transparent area, which is like- 
wise circular. In the centre of the transparent space, in 
the germ-area, a line makes its appearance, where the 
future spinal column will be : this is called the primitive 
trace, which is the foundation of the man. (Fig. 20.) 


At the end of the second week the human being is one- 
twelfth of an inch in length : as yet there is no distinc- 
tion between fish, reptile, bird, mammal, or man, all 
being formed in the same way, and having the same 

The trace enlarges, its edges thicken, rise, and bend 
forward in front, till they join, and form a tube, which is 
destined to contain the brain and spinal cord : this is 
sometimes called the spinal tube. At the same time the 
edges of the under side of the primitive trace bend back- 
ward, curve, unite, and form a second tube, which be- 
comes the abdominal cavity, enclosing the alimentary 
canal and the reproductive organs : this is sometimes 
called the intestinal tube. When the human being is 
three weeks old, it is about one-sixth of an inch in length : 
a swelling exists where the head is to be, and the first 
rudiments of the eye, the ear, and the brain, make their 
appearance. The limbs are entirely wanting, there is no 
real face, and nothing to distinguish man from opossum, 
dog, or ape. 

At the end of the fourth week the human embryo is 
nearly half an inch long ; the head with its various parts 
can be plainly distinguished ; the heart shows all four 
compartments, and nearly fills the chest cavity ; the rudi- 
ments of the lungs appear, and all the essential parts of 
the body may be seen. Yet even now, as Haeckel says 
(to whose work " The Evolution of Man," I am indebted 



for most of this description), in this stage we are still un- 
able to discern any characters essentially distinguishing 
the human embryo from those of the dog, the rabbit, the 
ox, the horse, or, indeed, of any of the higher mammals." 
(Figs. 21, 22, 23, 24.) It is true, the head is a little 

Fig. 21. Fig. 22. Fig. 23. Fic. 24. 

Fig. 21. — The Embryo of the Fish at an early period of its development. Fig. 
22. — The Embryo of the Chick. FiG. 23. — The Embryo of the Hog. Fig. 24. 
— The Embryo of the Man. 

larger in man than in the hog, and th^" tail is a little 
shorter ; but the tail of man when he is a month old is 
double the length of his legs. 

At eight weeks old the human embryo can scarcely be 
distinguished from that of the highest apes, but after this 
its human character is firmly established. 

Dr. Roget tells us that "the human embryo is not 
exempt from the same metamorphoses" (that is, those to 
which the lower animals are subject), "possessing at 
one period branchiae and branchial apertures similar to 


those of the cartilaginous fishes, a heart with a single 
set of cavities, and a brain consisting of a longitudinal 
series of tubercles ; next losing its branchiae, and acquir- 
ing lungs, while the circulation is yet single, and thus 
imitating the condition of the reptile ; then acquiring a 
double circulation, but an incomplete diaphragm, like 
birds ; afterwards appearing like a quadruped, with a 
caudal prolongation of the sacrum, and an intermaxillary 
bone ; and, lastly, changing its structure to one adapted 
to the erect position." ^ 

Agassiz says of the human brain, " It first becomes a 
brain resembling that of a fish, then it grows into the 
form of that of a reptile, then into that of a bird, then 
into that of a mammiferous quadruped, and finally it 
assumes the form of a human brain ; 'thus comprising in 
its foetal progress an epitome of geological history, as if 
man were in himself a compendium of all animated 
nature, and of kin to every creature that lives.' " - And 
Agassiz' conjecture is probably the exact truth, and the 
correct explanation of these wonderful resemblances. 
Huxley says, " It is very long before the body of the 
young human being can be distinguished from that of 
the young puppy." It may be considered an unfortunate 
circumstance, that the mental similarity continues much 

* Roget, Bridgewater Treatise, vol. ii., p. 443. 
2 Preface to Footprints of the Creator. 


But why do human beings resemble protozoans, the 
simplest forms of life ; then worms, brainless fishes, true 
fishes, so that they even have gills and gill apertures ; 
why do they advance through forms that closely resem- 
ble those of the reptile, the bird, the lower mammal, and 
the ape, before they assume the proper human type? 
Are not these so many steps by which man has ascended 
to his elevated position? Is it not safe to say that if 
there had never been a protozoan, produced sponta- 
neously, there never could have been a worm ; without a 
worm never a fish ; without a fish never a reptile, bird, or 

All the facts connected with man's metamorphoses 
from the tgg to the perfect being, and they are millions, 
unite in pointing to man's natural and therefore to man's 
brutal origin. In this sense the brute is father of the 


Another pointer is the anatomical similarity between 
man and the lower animals. The number of limbs in 
the vertebrates of all ages has been four. The first true 
fishes balanced themselves with four fins, as our present 
ones do ; their forward fins corresponding with our arms, 
the hinder ones with our legs. The reptile walks with 
four feet ; the bird with two, because the other twp have 
become wings, and are needed for flight : they are but 



feathered arms. The monkeys are said to have four 
hands ; but in reahty they have two feet, that are fre- 
quently used as hands, which they somewhat resemble, 
and two hands that are frequently used as feet. 

We share our digits with vast numbers of both living 
and extinct forms. Our earliest star-fishes have five fin- 

FiG. 25. Fig. 26. 

Fig. 25. — Palceaster Ruthveni. Fig. 26. — Palasterina Primceva. Both 
from the Upper Silurian of Great Britain. (After Salter). 

gers (Figs. 25 and 26), as have most of our living ones. 
The fingers of the crinoids are always some multiple of 
five, while their cups, when angular, are always five-sided, 
and their stalks nearly always so. The old labyrinthodon 
left a five-digited track on the Triassic sandstones, that 
looks marvellously like the impression of a rude human 
hand. (Fig. 27.) In the foot of the musk-rat, in the 
paw of the bear and lion, in the flipper of the dolphin, 
the wing of the bat, and the undivided paddle of the 
whale, are the same number of bones, and in the same 
places, as in the hand of the man who writes an article 
to disprove man's natural origin. 


Man has seven cervical vertebrae in his neck ; so has 
the giraffe that feeds upon the mimosa-trees, twenty feet 
high, and the pig that can hardly be said to have a neck 
at all. 

All the higher apes have the same number of vertebrae 

Fig. 27. — Track of the Labyrinthodon. 

as man ; their teeth are the same ; and so close is the 
general resemblance between them and man, that Owen, 
our highest authority in comparative anatomy, says, " I 
cannot shut my eyes to the significance of that all-per- 
vading similitude of structure — every tooth, every bone, 
strictly homologous — which makes the determination of 
the difference between ho7no and pitJiecus " (that is, 
between man and the monkey) " the anatomist's diffi- 
culty." ^ As late as the sixteenth century, human anato- 
my was taught and studied from the skeleton of the 
monkey alone. The anatomical differences that exist 
between the various famihes of monkeys are greater than 
those that exist between the anthropomorplious apes — 
such as the chimpanzee, the orang, and the gorilla — and 

1 Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of London for 1857. 


Why this close anatomical resemblance? A miracu- 
lous creator could hardly be supposed to follow the same 
model in creating man that was used for these brutes, so 
immeasurably his inferiors ; and in this similarity of 
form, which exists between man and the animals below 
him, we have a pointer whose significance may be 
denied, but can hardly be doubted. 


The linking forms, which exist between man and the 
lowest types of life, constitute another pointer. Man 
does not float like a balloon, completely cut off from all 
below him, but is uniteei with the lowest organisms by a 
series of animal forms, that are like so many layers of 
stone in a pyramid, of which he forms the apex. It is 
now generally acknowledged that animals and plants are 
so closely linked in their lowest forms, that they pass into 
each other by insensible gradations. The protozoa, as 
Page says in his geological hand-book, " appear almost 
to occupy a sort of neutral ground between animals and 
vegetables." Hence they are called by some naturalists 
Phytozoa, or plant-animals. Professor Clark, one of the 
best of microscopists, says, " To this day there remains 
a doubt as to the animal or vegetable nature of certain 
forms, which have characters that lead on the one side to 
plants, and on the other to animals."^ Sponges have 

^ Mind in Nature, p. 151. 


been placed on both sides of the Hne by many natural- 
ists ; and, though now regarded as animals, they are 
rooted, manifest no feeling, and appear lower in the scale 
than some plants with which we are acquainted. 

It is but a step from the protozoa to the opalina, a 
creature covered with vibratory cilia, that is frequently 
classed with the protozoa, but is allied very closely to cer- 
tain worms. Various classes of worms carry us near to 
the line of the lowest of the vertebrates, like the amphi- 
oxus, a fish, and yet destitute of skull, brain, jaws, limbs, 
and jointed vertebral column. Step by step we pass 
along the line of the fishes, till we come to forms which 
are exceedingly difiicult to class either with fishes or with 
amphibians. The proteus of the Austrian caves, the lepi- 
dosiren or mud-fish, and the axolotl of Mexico, are fish- 
like animals with long tails, and possess both lungs and 
gills. In the water they can breathe by means of their 
gills, and in the air by means of their lungs. In zoologi- 
cal works to-day these forms are sometimes classed with 
amphibians and sometimes with fishes. From the am- 
phibians to the true reptiles the distance is not great ; 
but from the reptiles that crawl, to the birds that fly, the 
space is wide : geology, however, enables us to bridge 
or nearly bridge the chasm between them. The ptero- 
dactyle was a flying lizard with bird-like characteristics. 
(Fig. 28.) The Jurassic and cretaceous beds furnish us 
with skeletons of dinosaurs that walked upon their hind- 



legs alone, and were apparently on the march to the 
bird ; while Solenhofen presents us with a bird having 
reptilian teeth and a reptihan but feathered tail, and the 
cretaceous beds of Kansas have yielded birds with rep- 
tilian jaws and bristling teeth. (Fig. 29.) 

Fig. 28. — Restored Skeleton of the Pterodactyle. The species represented is 

Pterodactylus Crassirostris. 

There is considerable space to-day between the bird 
and the mammal, and doubtless we shall yet discover 
between them many intermediate fossil forms. Yet in 
the ornithorhynchus we see a mammal with webbed feet ; 
broad flat jaws, destitute of teeth, that resemble those of 
a duck ; an animal that has but one excretory orifice, hke 
a bird, and produces eggs, but they are hatched before 
thev leave the oviduct. 



When we advance from the lower mammals to man, 
we approach a chasm that has been regarded as infinitel}^ 
wide and that requires a miracle to span ; but, as Huxley 
says, " no absolute structural line of demarcation, wider 
than that between the animals that immediately succeed 
us in the scale, can be drawn between the animal world 

Fig. 29. — Jaws of Fossil Birds from the Cretaceous Beds of Kansas. Lower 
Jaw of Ichihyorttis Dispar. Lower Jaw of Hesperortiis Regalis. (After 

and ourselves." If we look at brain-capacity, where we 
find the greatest disproportion between the quadrumana 
and man, we learn that the difference between the brain- 
capacity of the average Australian and the largest Cau- 
casian is five and a half cubic inches greater than be- 
tween the average gorilla and the smallest Australian. If 
the small brain-capacity of the Australian will not prevent 
him from rising in the scale of manhood till individ- 
uals of his race shall equal the highest Caucasian brain 
endowment, the nthe smallness of the brain-capacity of 


the ape-like forms that parented humanity may not have 
prevented them from advancing to the brain-capacity of 
the lowest Australian. The fact, however, is, as has been 
frequently said, man is widening the gap between him- 
self and the lower animals continually, and must have 
been doing so for ages, by killing off the animals that 
are most like himself, their wants and his being almost 
identical, and by advancing in cerebral power and gen- 
eral manhood. What the brain-capacity of the animals 
was, from which human beings are directly descended, it 
may be difficult to say, as they have long since perished ; 
but human skulls of the greatest age show us, by the 
general smallness of their size and their inferior develop- 
ment, that the gap between brutality and humanity was, 
in all probability, much narrower in ancient times than it 
is at present. 

I do not suppose, as Darwinians do, that all the steps 
taken by animals in their progressive march were neces- 
sarily minute. They may have been as great as would 
enable animals to pass from one variety to another, and 
in some cases the steps may have been as wide as those 
that separate specific forms of the same genus. There 
may be indeed a magnetic force, of whose operation we 
have obscure indications, that in the past time of our 
planet's history was much more active than at present, 
and by whose agency greater organic changes took place, 
and with greater rapidity, than is possible at the present 



One of the most significant pointers is the existence 
of what are called rudimentary organs, or what might be 
more properly called redundant organs. In addition to 
those organs which animals possess, that are in general 
use, there are other organs or parts of organs, that are 
no t of the slightest utility, but point back to ance stral 
f orms of life^ in which they were of use. All ruminants, 
except camels, are destitute of incisors in the upper jaw. 
Most persons are familiar with the fact that the cow has a 
hard pad, occupying the place which in us is occupied 
by the upper incisor teeth. The unborn calf, however, 
has incisor teeth in the upper jaw, that never cut through 
the gum, and are therefore never of the slightest use to 
the animal. As the blind-fish of the caves lost its eyes 
because it never used them, so these animals, we may 
suppose, are descended from an animal that possessed 
incisors in the upper jaw and used them ; but some de- 
scendant of this animal, by a variation in its structure, 
was able to crop grass by a lateral motion of its lower 
jaw, the assistance of its tongue, and mere pressure upon 
the upper jaw, and in process of time the upper incis- 
ors were lost. The unborn animal never having been 
modified, in the foetal calf we have a representative of the 
unmodified upper-incisor-using ancestor, probably of the 
early tertiary times. 



The horse and its probable ancestors furnish us with 
interesting examples of rudimentary or redundant organs. 
In the leg of the horse we find what are called splint 
bones, which answer to the index and ring fingers of the 
human hand : there are, however, no exterior toes to 
correspond with these interior bones, except in special 
cases, in which horses are occasionally seen with two 
small hoofs attached to these bones. Until the discovery 

Fig. 30. — Modifications of the Foot of the Horse, i. Foot of the Recent Horse; 
2. Foot of the Hipparion ; 3. Foot of the Miohippus ; 4. Foot of the Orohip- 
pus. (After Marsh.) 

of horse-like animals in the tertiary deposits, no one 
could imagine what was the meaning of these bones and 
the occasional appearance of extra hoofs. 

In European beds belonging to the pliocene, the high- 
est division of the tertiary, we find an animal called the 
hipparion, about the size of an ass, but greatly resembling 
the horse in anatomical structure. It had, however, a 
small toe on each side of the hoof, that never reached 


the ground. (Fig. 30.) If this animal, which was very 
abundant before the horse made its appearance, was the 
ancestor of the horse, we may account for the sphnt 
bones in the leg of the horse, and the occasional appear- 
ance of dangling toes on its leg. They are heirlooms 
from the ancestral hippario7i. But what is the meaning 
of the toes that never touch the ground in the leg of the 
hipparion ? To discover the meaning of these, we must 
go still farther back. 

In the miocene beds of the United States we find a 
horse-like animal about the size of a sheep, called the 
miohippiis, furnished with three serviceable toes on each 
foot ; but the middle toe is the longest and much the 
largest, and must have been most used. There is also a 
rudimentary splint-bone on each fore-leg, and we now 
naturally look still farther back for the meaning of this. 

In the middle eocene we find the orohippus, another 
horse-like animal, but not much larger than a fox ; in it 
we find the rudimentary splint-bone of the miohippus re- 
placed by a perfect and serviceable toe, though the hind- 
legs have but three toes, as have those of the miohippus. 

In the lowest beds of the eocene are found the re- 
mains of the eohippus (dawn-horse). This was no larger 
than a fox, yet had considerable resemblance to the 
horse, and had on its fore-feet four serviceable toes, and 
a rudimentary fifth toe. We look still farther back, there- 
fore, for a five-toed true eohippus : it has not yet been 


discovered, but may be found in the cretaceous beds, as 
a diminutive horse about as large as a rabbit. All mod- 
ern horses may not have descended from the horse-like 
animals whose names I have mentioned, for in my opin- 
ion horses have been developed along several lines ; but 
I have no doubt that all of them passed through similar 
metamorphoses in the course of their development, and 
the traces of the ancestors can be seen in their more 
developed progeny. 

True whales, those from which the whalebone is ob- 
tained, have no teeth ; but the foetal whale has from sixty 
to seventy teeth on each side of the jaw. The whale is 
probably descended from some carnivorous mammal, that 
had teeth and used them ; but some of its descendants 
became so varied that baleen took the place of teeth, 
which only appear to-day in the unmodified foetus. 

The apteryx of New Zealand is a wingless bird ; yet 
the wing-bones, reduced to mere rudiments, are there. 
Living as its ancestors did in a country where there were 
no mammals to disturb it, flight was unnecessary, and by 
disuse the wings became smaller ; and the modified de- 
scendants of the flying ancestors have but horny claws 
where the wings once were. 

Boas and pythons, those gigantic snakes, have rudi- 
mentary hind-limbs, consisting of a few small bones sus- 
pended in the muscles on each side, and terminated in a 
horny claw, which appears on the outside. These rudi- 


mentary limbs are good evidence that their remote an- 
cestors could walk. Among lizards to-day we may almost 
see the steps by which ancient lizards were modified into 
snakes. In the family of the scincidcE, we find the genus 
scincus, with short feet and a body nearly cylindrical and 
covered with scales. In seps the legs are very weak and 
set far apart ; so that it trusts little to its limbs, and wrig- 
gles along like a snake. It is not surprising to find ani- 
mals in which the reduction of the limbs has been carried 
farther still, and only a few bones in some cases are left 
to show where the limbs have been. 

Nor is man destitute of similar indications of his pre- 
vious ancestors. In most persons the ability to move the 
ears is gone, though the rudiments of the muscles by 
which the motions were once effected are still there. 
(Fig. 31.) In the skeleton of man we can still see the 
bones of the tail, that must have characterized his pro- 
genitors, but which was lost long before the appearance 
of humanity. 


The resemblance that exists between living animals 
found in certain districts of country and the fossil ani- 
mals found in the recent tertiary deposits of the same 
districts is another pointer. 

In South America there are found at this time the 
sloth, the armadillo, the cavy, or guinea-pig as it is some- 



times called, the ctenomys, and platyrrhine or broad-nos- 
trilled monkeys ; but none of these are found in Europe, 
Asia, or Africa. In accordance with this the bone-caves 
of South America, belonging to the recent tertiary period, 
furnish us with fossil sloths, armadillos, cavys, ctenomys, 
and platyrrhine monkeys : they are not, however, of the 
same species as the living ones, and they are generally 

Fig. 31. Rudimentary Ear-Moving ]Muscles in the Human Head. (After 


much larger ; but none of these are found in recent ter- 
tiary deposits of Europe, Asia, or Africa. If the present 
mammals of South America are the modified descendants 
of its tertiary mammals, this is just what we should expect ; 
but if the species of animals were miraculously created, 
no good reason can be given why these forms should 
have been restricted to the South American continent, 
when they can just as well live on all the others. 


New Zealand has very few indigenous mammals, a bat, 
a mouse, and perhaps a kind of fox, being all ; but it has 
a family of wingless birds, of which there are three spe- 
cies. In accordance with this no fossil mammals have 
been found in New Zealand, but several species of wing- 
less birds, some of gigantic size. 

Of more than forty species of mammals indigenous to 
Australia, all but one or two are marsupial ; and the fos- 
sil mammals, though in some cases as large as the rhi- 
noceros, were also marsupial. If the wingless birds of 
New Zealand and the pouched mammals of Australia are 
naturally descended from similar, though generally more 
gigantic, wingless birds and pouched mammals of the 
tertiary times, this is just what we should expect to find ; 
but, if animals were specially created for their respective 
localities, why should such countries as Australia, Tas- 
mania, and New Zealand be destitute of the horse, the 
sheep, the bos, and the goat, to which they are so well 
adapted ? 


This is also an important pointer. Had man made his 
appearance on the planet with no preceding forms at all 
resembling him, had the animals of the present time had 
no predecessors in the earlier times with which we could 
connect them, we should have naturally supposed that 
they were created instantly and full-grown. But man is 


only the last link of a chain that extends through the 
ages : we do not see all the links ; but we see a sufficient 
number to assure us that they are all there, and the chain 
has never been broken. If man has come by gradual 
advancement from the simplest organic forms produced 
spontaneously, we should find, as we trace living beings 
backward through the geologic ages, that they constantly 
become simpler in structure, and bear a nearer resem- 
blance to the primitive forms, from which we may reason- 
ably suppose them to have been developed. This is just 
what we find. Below the pliocene tertiary, all traces of 
man are lost, but his brute relations, the monkeys, are 
numerous : as we descend, these become smaller in size, 
and possess smaller and smoother brains, till in the creta- 
ceous beds all traces of the monkey are gone. Mammals, 
however, remain until we reach the triassic age, when 
we find the largest smaller than a rabbit and as bird-like 
in its organization as the opossum. Below the trias the 
highest animals are reptiles, whose remains are found 
through the triassic age and the Permean, when they also 
disappear, and amphibians, the next lower organic link, 
are the highest representatives of life. These continue 
until we reach the earliest portion of the carboniferous 
period, when we bid farewell to the amphibians. Back- 
ward still to discover what life's organic beginnings were 
like. Here in the Devonian are fishes, enormous fishes, 
mailed fishes, but nothing higher has yet been found ; 


for millions of years we retreat through the Devonian, 
through the Upper Silurian, the fish dwindling in size and 
numbers at every step, till at last even fishes have van- 
ished. But shells remain, some of them enormous ; 
orthoceratites, fifteen to twenty feet long, their muscular 
arms outspread and their spire-like shells pointing up- 
ward, as they crawl over the sea-bottom and seize their 
prey. We pass through the Silurian into the Cambrian ; 
and, as we go, the shells dwindle, till the largest is no 
larger than the finger-nail ; and the shells in their turn 
disappear. Is there any thing left ? In the very lowest 
beds of the Cambrian we find radiated, fan-like forms, 
belonging, it is generally believed, to the radiata ; and 
these are the highest expressions of life. If eozoon 
should prove to be an animal, then in the very lowest 
beds in which the remains of organic beings have been 
found, the protozoa, the lowest of all animals, are the only 
evidences that we find of life's organized embodiment. 


The resemblance that is found between animals and 
plants on islands and those found on the neighboring 
mainland constitutes another important pointer. On the 
Galapagos Islands, which are six hundred miles north- 
west of South America, are found birds, tortoises, igu- 
anas, crabs, beetles and plants, nearly all differing specifi- 
cally from those of other localities. Darwin, who visited 


the islands, and carefully examined the animals and 
plants, says, " Here almost every product of the land 
and water bears the unmistakable stamp of the American 
continent. There are twenty-six land-birds, and twenty- 
one, perhaps twenty-three, of these are ranked as distinct 
species, and are supposed to have been created here ; yet 
the close affinity of most of these birds to American 
species in every character, in their habits, gestures, and 
tones of voice, was manifest. So it is with the other 
animals and with nearly all the plants." The animals 
and plants of New Guinea in like manner resemble those 
of Australia, to which the island is contiguous. Those 
found in Java are like those living on the Asiatic conti- 
nent. Cape Verde species resemble those of Africa, near 
to which it lies ; and those of New Zealand are like the 
species living on x\ustralia, the nearest large body of 

We cannot conceive that a Creator, as the Galapagos 
Islands successively came up from the bottom of the sea 
(for they are volcanic), made the birds, tortoises, igu- 
anas, crabs, beetles, and plants for them like those of the 
nearest land, yet specifically distinct from them. It is 
evident that when the Galapagos Islands arose from the 
deep, they received most of their tenants from the neigh- 
boring continent : some may have been developed there, 
some flew there, some were blown by the winds, others 
wafted by the waves, and still others carried by birds 


Separated as they were from the original forms for long 
periods of time and under different conditions, they devi- 
ated from them so far as to produce new species, but the 
likeness to their progenitors is still retained. 

Had the islands never received any tenants from other 
localities, they would probably have been peopled by 
animals and plants exclusively indigenous ; but for life to 
advance from the protozoa, to reptiles and birds, may 
require, even where conditions are favorable, vast ages 
for its accomplishment. 


If man first made his appearance upon this planet 
about six thousand years ago, then we can be sure he is 
not of natural origin : nothing short of a miracle could 
have given him in so short a time the perfection to which 
we know he had attained at about that period. If we 
can prove that he has been here for a hundred thousand 
years, it does not follow that he was not miraculously 
created ; but, taken with a multitude of other concur- 
ring facts, this also points in the direction of man's 
natural evolution. 

It is but a short time since it was generally taught, and 
almost universally believed, that the earth is but six thou- 
sand years old, and that it, together with the rest of the 
universe, compared with the known portion of which our 
planet is small as an invisible atom, were made in six 


days, of twenty-four hours each. This Liliputian chro- 
nology is, indeed, still insisted upon by some antiquated 
theologians, and taught in many of the Sunday schools, 
even of New England. 

The young but lusty science of geology has made 
great havoc with this venerable idea : tearing down the 
curtain our ignorance had woven, it revealed to our 
astonished gaze ages innumerable, stretching away into 
the past so far that our mental eyes were strained in the 
attempt to see their distant boundary, while marching 
through them we beheld a procession of innumerable 
life-forms, many of them such as painter never limned 
and of which poet never dreamed. 

It seems strange to us now, that, with so many marks 
of the earth's great age surrounding us, we could ever 
have made so grave a mistake as we did. Here are trees 
that must have been saplings at the dawn of creation, 
supposing that creation to be as- recent as was then 
believed ; deltas, such as those at the mouths of the Mis- 
sissippi and Ganges, that must have taken at least half a 
million of years to form ; canons a mile deep, made by 
rivers that must have rolled through them for ages ; and 
seven miles of fossiliferous rocks, abounding with the 
remains of myriads of strange beings, that could only 
have come into existence and become extinct during 
periods too large for the human intellect to grasp. 

The evidences of man's great antiquity are now as 


clearly presented to the eye of the archaeologist, as that 
of the earth's so much greater age is presented to the 
vision of the geologist ; so that, as J. P. Leslie says, " we 
can regard as perfectly certain that the known historical 
period is a mere nothing in point of time, compared 
with the periods during which our race has actually 
inhabited the earth ; or, as Lyell significantly expresses 
it, this historical period is comparatively only a creature 
of yesterday. In this opinion all students of the subject 
now agree, even those who were formerly the most obsti- 
nate of its opponents." Again he says, " My own belief 
is but the reflection of the growing sentiment of the 
whole geological world, — a conviction strengthening 
every day, as you may with little trouble see for your- 
selves, by glancing through the magazines of current 
scientific literature, — that our race has been upon the 
earth for hundreds of thousands of years ! "^ 

If we had to depend upon tradition alone for our 
knowledge of past events, we should be able to look 
back but a short distance in the history of humanity. 
In this country the great events of the American Revolu- 
tion would be vivid in the minds of many, and we might 
learn the truth with regard to the most important ; but 
the discovery of America by Columbus would exist only 
as a faint tradition, and the history of the world before 
that time would be all but a perfect blank. In fact, it has 

* Man's Origin and Destiny, p. 66, 


been found that tribes having no written records lose the 
most important events in their history in a hundred years. 

By printed and written documents, handed down from 
one generation to another, we can, however, pass up the 
stream of time, and mark important events that have 
transpired for thousands of years. We thus learn that 
Jesus, the Galilaean reformer, lived nearly nineteen cen- 
turies ago ; that Socrates, the sage of Greece, died four 
centuries before that; that the poet Homer sang about 
five centuries earlier ; and that Solomon's reign in Jeru- 
salem is separated from our time about twenty-nine 
hundred years. All scholars agree that dates received 
from written documents prior to this are very uncertain. 
The date of Abraham's birth has been placed at about 
thirty-five hundred years ago, and this is probably not far 
from the truth ; yet, in the time of Abraham, Egypt was 
a flourishing nation, with kings and princes, and a civili- 
zation of great antiquity. 

When written documents fail, monuments and inscrip- 
tions, especially those of Egypt, enable us to travel much 
farther into humanity's past. The Pyramids of Egypt 
are in some respects the most remarkable exhibitions of 
man's constructive ability on the globe. The largest 
covers about twelve acres : it is four hundred and fifty 
feet high, and is estimated to contain more than six 
million tons of stone. Lenormant, the French historian, 
says of it, " With all the progress of knowledge, it would 


be, even in our days, a problem difficult to solve, to con- 
struct, as the Egyptian architects of the fourth dynasty 
have done, in such a mass as that of the pyramid, cham- 
bers and passages, which, in spite of the millions of tons 
IDressing on them, have, for sixty centuries, preserved 
their original shape, without crack or flaw." 

The age of this pile is uncertain, but may be safely set 
at five thousand years. Humboldt makes the following 
statement regarding the age of it, and the two pyramids 
in its vicinity : " The valley of the Nile, which has occu- 
pied so distinguished a place in the history of man, yet 
preserves authentic portraits of kings as far back as the 
commencement of the fourth dynasty of Manetho. His 
dynasty, which embraces the construction of the great 
pyramids of Ghiza, Chefren, and Cheops, commences 
more than thirty-four hundred years B. C." 

But this was in the fourth dynasty of Eg}^ptian kings ; 
civilization in Egypt must have been vastly older than 
this. Humboldt, referring to the age of that pre-exist- 
ing civilization, says, " In the dimness of antiquity, which 
constitutes, as it were, the extreme horizon of true histor- 
ical knowledge, we see many luminous points or cen- 
tres of civilization, simultaneously blending their rays. 
Among these we may reckon Egypt, at least five thou- 
sand years before our era." ^ Baldwin says, " It is now as 
certain as any thing else in ancient history, that Egypt 

* Cosmos, vol. ii., p. 114, Harper's edition, 1856. 


existed as a civilized country not less than five thousand 
years earlier than the birth of Christ." ^ 

We are back now nearly seven thousand years, and we 
fjnd Egypt is a civilized country ; and this presupposes a 
})eriod of many thousand years, during which the people 
were passing from a condition of barbarism to that of 
civilization. Can any light be shed upon this still more 
ancient time ? We find in all civilized countries, where 
the materials could be obtained, that man passed suc- 
cessively through an age called the stone age, when his 
implements were made of stone, and another called the 
bronze age, in which they were made of bronze, before 
he attained to the iron age and historic civilization. We 
have reason to believe that iron was used in Egypt when 
the Pyramids were built. But we find bronze chisels in 
her ancient mines, and bronze adzes, hatchets, saws, fal- 
chions, and battle-axes in her most ancient tombs. Older 
than all these, however, was her stone age, when iron, 
tin, and copper were alike unknown. Enormous quanti- 
ties of flint implements have been discovered in Egypt, 
says W. Boyd Dawkins." Sir John Lubbock found flint 
implements in Egypt in great numbers, on the slopes of 
the hifls, on the lower plateaus, and, "in fact, wherever 
flint was abundant and of good quality." Several that 
he found resembled those discovered in the gravel-beds 
of the Somme.^ Many have been found by other col- 

1 Pre-hlstoric Nations, p. 32. ^ Nature, vol. xiii., p. 245. 

3 Journal Anthropological Institute, vol. iv., p. 215. 


lectors ; and it is unquestionable that in the valley of the 
Nile, man advanced from gross barbarism, at a time when 
a rudely fashioned stone was his only weapon to defend 
himself against the wild beasts that must have then 
lurked in the valley, step by step, doubtless painfully and 
slowly, to brick-moulding, monument-chiselling, pyramid- 
raising, and the civilization that characterized him seven 
thousand years ago. 

The earliest portion of this stone age, judging from 
w^hat we know of it in otlier countries, must have been 
enormously remote. In England, Wales, Scotland, Ire- 
land, on the Hebrides, the Orkney and Shetland Islands, 
in Ireland, France, Belgium, Germany, Scandinavia, 
Greece, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, and 
Turkey, Palestine, Egypt, China, and Japan, have been 
found within the last twenty-five years, hundreds of thou- 
sands of arrows, celts, chisels, axes, hammers, knives, and 
other articles of stone, which represent the stone age in 
human history, long before man had formed the first letter 
to record the steps of his progress. 

Around the shores of the lakes of Switzerland and 
Northern Italy, we can read most clearly the story of the 
bronze age and the more recent part of the stone age in 
human history ; for during that time human beings occu- 
pied houses built on platforms laid upon piles driven into 
the lakes around their borders ; and for thousands of 
years there they lived, worked, kissed and married, quar- 


relied, laughed, wept, and died, dropping from time to 
time their tools and utensils into the lake, where they 
were covered with mud, and were thus well preserved. 
At Morges on Lake Geneva, at Nidau on Lake Bienne, 
Estavayer, Cortaillod and Corcelettes, on Lake Neu- 
chatel, 4,416 objects of bronze were found, consisting of 
axes, knives, lances, sickles, pins, rings, ear-rings, brace- 
lets, fish-hooks, (S:c., yet not a particle of iron, and but 
few objects of stone. At Morges fifty bronze axes were 
found, and not one of stone. 

At these places it is evident there were settlements 
during the age of bronze. In them lived a people who 
melted copper and tin, and cast various bronze articles, 
for a bar of tin and moulds for casting have been found. 
These people, as we have learned from their remains, 
cultivated the soil, domesticated animals, and possessed 
the arts of turning pottery and weaving cloth. How 
long this was ago we cannot yet tell. It may have been 
since the Pyramids were built ; but, if so, we cannot 
regard it as long subsequent to that event, for history 
knows nothing of these lake-dwellers. 

But before them dwelt a people in Switzerland much 
more rude, — the men of the stone age. At Wangen on 
Lake Constance, Pont de Thiele on Lake Bienne, at 
jNIoosedorf on Lake Moosedorf, and at Wauwyl on 
Lake Lucerne, there have been collected 3,994 articles 
made of stone and bone, axes, flakes, whetstones, corn- 


crushers, axe-handles, awls, &c., yet not a single article 
of bronze or iron. M. Lohle found at Wangan, on Lake 
Constance, eleven hundred axes, one hundred whet- 
stones, one hundred and fifty corn-crushers, two hundred 
and sixty arrow-heads and flint-flakes, besides three hun- 
dred and fifty articles of bone, and one hundred of 
earthenware, and yet not a trace of metal. 

These were a ruder people : they cut down trees by 
burning around them, and cutting off the charred por- 
tion wirh their stone axes ; their pottery is very rude and 
coarse ; the potter's wheel was unknown, and the baking 
was poorly done : the only ornamentation consists of 
simple lines or furrows. They were by no means sav- 
ages : they practised spinning and weaving to a certain 
extent, and made rude cloth of flax ; they had domesti- 
ca'"ed the dog, pig, horse, f^oat, sheep, and at least two 
kindh, of oxen. They fed very largely on the flesh of 
wild animals ; among thf.m the urus, or great fossil ox, 
the bison, the elk, the stag, and the wild boar, which are 
no longer found in Switzerland, and the beaver, bear, and 
ibex, which are now rare. The Swiss archaeologists gen- 
erally assign to this stone period an age of from five to 
seven thousand years. 

Many of the stone tools and weapons found in the Swiss 
lakes, and which represent this age, are very well formed, 
and others were finished by laborious rubbing and polish- 
ing. There was, however, a still older period in human 


Tiistory, when all the stone weapons and implements were 
rude and unpolished. The time when the Swiss lakes 
were occupied by men who were in the stone age, and the 
time when men carefully fabricated and polished their arti- 
cles of stone, has been called the neolithic age, or the new 
stone age ; and the older tmie, when they made only rude 
and unpolished weapons, has been called the paleolithic 
age, or the old stone age ; and this carries us very much 
farther into the past. When we go backward to the old 
stone age in France, Belgium, and Great Britain, we find 
ourselves in a strange land, and in strange company. 
S'.icep and goats are entirely v/anting ; the hog is very 
rare, and there is no reason to think it was domesticated ; 
while the remains of strange animals, some of which are 
only strange, however, in those countries, are found in 
great abundance, such as the mammoth, reindeer, musk- 
ox, ibex, marmot, chamois, and the woolly rhinoceros, 
indicating a very cold climate ; and the cave-lion, cave- 
tiger, cave-hyena, machairodus, hippopotamus, and other 
species of rhinoceroses and elephants, in all probability 
smooth-skinned, indicating a warmer climate, and one 
even warmer than exists to-day in the countries where we 
find these remains. 

We thus find the paleolithic age naturally dividing 
itself into two periods, in the former of which the 
climate was very much colder than it is now, like that 
of Northern Greenland and Lapland, and the other in 


which it was considerably warmer, something Hke that of 
Southern Africa. The cold period, we have good reason 
to believe, was the glacial period, and the warm period 
was pre-glacial, or pliocene tertiary, before the winter of 
the ages came on. 

In caves of France, Belgium, and Great Britain, have 
been found in great abundance implements of stone and 
bone, associated with the remains of various arctic ani- 
mals, showing us that man must have lived in the heart 
of Belgium and France a life very similar to that of the 
Esquimaux, surrounded as he was by similar conditions 
to those that surround them ; while in the same countries 
we find abundant evidence of his occupation of those 
lands during the previous warmer time, when the hippo- 
potamus bathed in the Tees and the Humber, when 
gigantic elephants wandered through the woods of 
France and England, when lions lurked in their caves, 
and various species of the rhinoceros wallowed in their 

From Mr. Pengelly's careful study of the formation of 
stalagmite in Kent's Cave in Devonshire, England, he 
calculates for the formation of five feet of it, which cov- 
ers up implements that were deposited by man, and the 
bones of extinct animals, no less a period than three 
hundred thousand years.^ This may be an extravagant 

' Lecture of William Pengelly, F.R.S., on the time that has elapsed since 
the era of the cave-men of Devonshire. 



estimate ; but the stalagmite covering represents but a 
small portion of the period of man's occupancy of the 
South of England, as presented in this cave. I have 
seen the beds of gravel in the neighborhood of Abbe- 
ville, from which M. de Perthes obtained so many flint 
weapons (Fig. 32), in connection with the remains of the 

Fig. 32. — Spear of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age, from the gravel-beds of 

Abbeville, France. (Original.) 

elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, &c. ; and I have no 
doubt that those weapons lay on the banks of the Somme 
during the pre-glacial time, as I have seen innumerable 
chert weapons lying on the banks of American streams, 
and that they, when the ice suddenly melted that lay over 
the country to the north during the glacial period, were 
swept by the waters of the swollen river into the old bed 
of the stream, now the gravel deposit, where they are 
discovered at the present time. I think no geologist can 
place the commencement of the glacial period nearer to 
our own time than a hundred thousand years, and then 


he must tliink there is a strong probabiHty of its being 
much more remote. 

Still more ancient must be the remains of man, found 
in pliocene beds of California. Professor J. D. Whitney, 
in a lecture delivered in Cambridge, Mass., thus refers to 
the most ancient human remains known to us at the 
present time : " During the pHocene, California and Ore 
gon became the theatre of the most tremendous volcanic 
activity that has devastated the surface of the globe. 
The valleys of the rivers in the Sierra were filled, and 
much of the country, particularly toward the north of 
California, was entirely buried in lava and ashes. Since 
then the rivers, seeking new channels, have made for 
themselves deep canons, leaving their old beds deeply 
buried under the lava. These old buried river-gravels 
are very rich in gold, and extensive tunnelling into the 
sides of the mountains and under the old lavas has been 
done. In one of these old river-bottoms, under the 
solid basalt of Table Mountain, many relics of human 
art have been obtained." In 1866 a skull was found 
on Bald Mountain, near Angels, in Calaveras County, one 
hundred and thirty feet from the surface, under four beds 
of lava, and in close proximity to a petrified tree. 

" The age of these deposits under the lavas is known 
to be pliocene, on account of the remains of the contem- 
poraneously buried flora and fauna, which were almost 
totally unlike the flora and fauna of California at the 



present time. That the skull was found in these old, 

intact, cemented gravels, has been abundandy proved by 

evidence that cannot be 

gainsaid. At the time it 

came into the speaker's 

hands, the skull was still 

embedded in a great 

measure in its originally 

gravelly matrix. ... In 

and about the skull were 

found other human bones, "^^^H 

including some that must ^^^- 33- — Calaveras County Skull. Care- 
fully drawn from a photograph. 

have belonged to an in- 
fant." (Fig. ^2>-) 

When lecturing at Sonora, near where the skull was 
found, I visited the spot, and talked with men who were 
conversant with the facts regarding its discovery, and 
became satisfied that there is no reasonable doubt of its 
genuineness. We only need to glance at the position of 
the skull (Fig. 34), and learn the facts regarding the age 
of the beds that lie above it, to learn that man's age upon 
this planet is immense. Professor Whitney sums up the 
facts in connection with the discovery of human remains 
and relics in ancient Californian deposits, in language of 
which the following is a portion : " There is a large body 
of evidence, the strength of which it is impossible to 
deny, which seems to prove that man existed in Califor- 






nia previous to the cessation of volcanic activity in the 
Sierra Nevada, to the epoch of the greatest extension of 
the glaciers in that region, and to the erosion of the pres- 
ent river canons and valleys, at 
a time when the animal and 
vegetable creations differed en- 
tirely from what they now are, 
and when the topographical 
features of the State were ex- 
tremely unlike those exhibited 
by the present surface." ^ Man 
in California saw a lava stream 
flow for forty miles down the 
bed of the old Stanislaus River ; 
and we now see that lava stream, 
in consequence of the wearing- 
down of the surrounding rocks, 
a mountain, known as the Table 
Mountain. "There has been, 
therefore," says Whitney, " an 


Ir ■ .;' .•.-.•.*.■--.. .,-.-. 


Fig. 34. — Bed in which the Ca- 
laveras County skull was found. 
I. black lava, 40 ft.; 2. grav- 
el, 3 ft.; 3. light lava, 30 ft.; 
4. gravel, 5 ft.; 5. light lava, 
15 ft.; 6. gravel, 25 ft.; 7. 

dark brown lava, 9 ft.; 8. amount of dcnudatiou during 

gravel, 5 ft. (in this bed the 

skull was found) ; 9. red lava, the pCHOd sinCC this VOlcauic 

4 ft.; 10. gravel, 17 ft.; 11. 4. i v ^ 

gj^^g mass took its present position, 

of not less than three or four 
thousand feet of perpendicular depth." " The rock that 

^ Auriferous Gravels of the Sierra Nevada of California, by J. D. Whitney, 
p. 288. 

2 Geological Survey of California, vol. i., p. 244. 


has thus been denuded is principally hard slate ; but the 
trap of Table Mountain seems almost indestructible by 
time. It stands to-day a monument of man's immense 
age on our planet, for many human relics have been found 
under it in various places ; and we see that there has 
been, in all probability, hundreds of thousands of years 
for man to advance, from the brutality that must have 
characterized him at his advent, to that civilization which 
is represented by the monuments of ancient Egypt. 


Lastly, the brutal characteristics of man at an early 
stage of his existence is direct proof of his natural 
origin. If man was created by miracle, the earliest 
specimens of the race we should naturally expect to find 
the most perfect specimens that the world has seen, as 
nearest to him who came perfect from the hand of his 
maker : but, if he was evolved from an ape-like ancestor, 
we should expect to find the characteristics of the brute 
appearing with greater distinctness in proportion to his 
antiquity ; and this is what the facts demonstrate. 

Let us hear what Professor Wilson says of the ancient 
man of Britain, or, as he calls him, " the primeval 
Briton : " " Intellectually he appears to have been in 
nearly the lowest stage to which an intelligent being can 
sink ; morally he was the slave of superstitions, the 
grovelling character of which can be partially inferred 


from the indications of his sepulchral rites ; . . . his 
cerebral development was poor; . . . the few imple- 
ments that ministered to his limited necessities disclose 
only the first rudiments of that inventive ingenuity which 
distinguishes the reason of man from the instincts of the 
brutes." ^ Neither saints nor i\pollos were those ances- 
tors of ours ; and those who so much dislike to hear of 
our relationship to brutes may be ready to deny that 
these wretched creatures were of our kin. 

Prichard says, " I have seen about half a dozen skulls 
found in different parts of England, in situations which 
rendered it highly probable that they belonged to ancient 
Britons. All these partook of one striking characteristic, 
namely, a remarkable narrowness of the forehead com- 
pared with the occiput, giving a very small space to the 
anterior lobes of the brain, and allowing room for a large 
development of the posterior lobes." ^ But just in the 
very way that they differed from existing British skulls, 
that made them so remarkable to Prichard, did they 
resemble the skull of the ape, which also gives a small 
space to the anterior lobes, where the man-brain lies, and 
allows room for a large development of the posterior 
lobes, in which the brute-brain is lodged. These old 
Britons, then, were so much nearer to the brute than the 
modern ones, that their skulls tell the story at a glance. 

1 Pre-historic Annals of Scotland, vol. i., p. 40. 

2 History of Mankind, vol. ii., p. 92. 


"Abbe Frere, canon of the cathedral of Paris, has 
lately formed a collection of ancient skulls, sent to him 
from all parts of Europe, and has deduced from a com- 
parison of them the general conclusion, that, in propor- 
tion as the skulls belonged to an ancient and primitive 
race, in the same proportion the frontal region is flat- 
tened, and the occipital developed." ^ The older the 
skulls, the more brutal were the men that carried 

Marcel de Serres says, " The human skulls found in 
various parts of Germany, in caves, or in drift deposits, 
are altogether different from those of the present inhabit- 
ants of the country." Some, he says, resemble those of 
negroes, others the crania of the ancient inhabitants 
of Chili and Peru. Professor Spring says of these cra- 
nia, " The pieces of human skull show that the forehead 
was short and much inchned." 

Professor Schaffhausen, on the primitive form of the 
human skull, concludes with these words : " We may 
regard it as beyond doubt that a skull which does not 
bear the signs of a low organization cannot be regarded 
as derived from primeval man, even though it may have 
been found among the bones of extinct animals. . . . 
We must now place the man of the primeval time a step 
lower than the rudest savages of the actual world. 

' Dr. Laycock, Mind and Brain. 

2 Man in the Past, Present, and Future, Biichner, p. 266. 

11 2 


Again he remarks, ''The shape of the forehead of 
the Neanderthal skull (Fig. 35), the dentition and the 
form of the lower jaw from La Naulette, and the progna- 
thism of some children's jaws of the stone age of West- 
ern Europe, excel in animal-resemblance any thing of 
this kind among living savages."^ 

Fig. 35. — Comparison of Forms of Skulls, i. European; 2. Neanderthal; 3. 

Chimpanzee. (After Lj-ell.) 

Paul Broca, the anthropologist, says, "Thus we have 
arrived at the most ancient known epoch in the life of 
mankind. What were at that time the physical charac- 
ters of man? The bones of the members which have 
been found prove that the stature was of little height ; 
and though the skulls, or remains of skulls, are still quite 
rare, it may be considered as very nearly demonstrated 
that our predecessors of the quaternary had the head 
small, with retreating forehead and oblique jaws." He 
further says, that, from the evidence furnished, the qua- 
ternary man takes his place "below the lowest types of 

^ Man in the Past, Present, and Future, Biichner, p. 266. 


Australia and New Caledonia, . . . and thus diminishes 
the interval which separates him from his zoological 
neighbors." ^ 

Several ape-hke lower human jaws have been found of 
great antiquity. One of these is called the jaw of La 
Naulette, since it was found in a cave of that name, in 
Belgium. A fragment of a worked reindeer's horn was 
found with it, and its age is probably that of the glacial 
time. It was found at a depth of about ten feet, in a 
deposit of river-loam. The canine teeth are remarkably 
wide and large, as in lower mammals, the three hinder 
molars are of the same relative sizes as they are gen- 
erally found in the higher apes, and its prognathism is 
very great. Profj^'SLsor Schaffhausen says, " It shows a 
clearly animal prognathism in the absence of a chin, 
a feature so important in the expression of the human 
countenance." Dr. Carter, in a report to the London 
Anthropological Society, after comparing it with more 
than three thousand jaws of various races of men, says 
it presents characters which ally it to those of the col- 
ored races of men, especially the Australian, or even 
beyond what is found in them, and he will not " venture 
to deny its indubitable similarity to the jaw of a young 
ape." 2 

1 Transactions of Anthropological Fociety of Paris. Smithsonian Report, 
1868, p. 306. 

a Biichner's Alan in llic Past, Present, an^ Fuivive, p. 307. 


Another jaw, found in a cave in Burgundy, at Arcy- 
sur-Aube, associated with the bones of extinct animals, 
possesses all the essential characters of the jaw of La 
Naulette, though to a less degree. " A human lower 
jaw, found in the cave of Frontal, associated with rein- 
deer-bones, is remarkable for the size of the molars, and 
the extraordinary thickness of the bone in the molar 
region." ^ A human jaw found at Ipswich, in Suffolk, 
England, regarded as of high antiquity, manifests a very 
low structure. 

I have opened several mounds in various parts of the 
West, and have examined a great many ancient Ameri- 
can skulls, and have never seen, among the most brutal 
people of this continent, any with heads as deficient in 
intellectual development as most of those must have 
been. The frontal bone of a skull in my possession, 
taken from a mound west of Minneapolis, represents 
the most brutal of all skulls that I have ever seen or 
heard of. 

The older the implements are that we discover, and 
the ruder their form, the older the people, the more 
barbarous their practices ; and we now know that in 
Scotland, England, France, Belgium, Italy, Sicily, and 
other European countries, the men of the early stone 
age practised cannibalism, for the remains of their 
human feasts have been found in all these locahties. 

* Buchner's Man in ihe Past, Present, and Future, p. 307. 


Then murder could have been no crime, and benevo- 
lence no virtue. It is evident that the chasm between 
man and the brute, could we go back to the earliest 
specimens of our race, must have been so narrow, that 
not the slightest necessity existed for calling in the aid 
of miracle to span its space. 

These pointers, like so many rays, direct us to the 
grand truth from which they proceed, — the natural origin 
of all organic beings, and therefore of man, who ap- 
peared on the tree of life when it was fully grown, as 
naturally as an apple appears upon an apple-tree when 
conditions have been favorable for its development. 


The too common reply to arguments of this character 
is that of ridicule. " Oh, that is it ! we have some ex- 
tinct ape for our father, and a silurian sea-worm for our 
grandfather : how thankful we should be to those scien- 
tific gentlemen, who have rescued from oblivion those 
illustrious ancestors of ours ! " I know of no evolutionist 
who believes that man was evolved from any of the exist- 
ing species of apes ; yet, if we could see the brutal ances- 
tors that fathered humanity, we should doubdess call 
them apes. But, if man did not come into existence as 
a modification of some pre-existing and inferior being, 
how was it done ? Shall we be told that man was made 
out of dust ? It then follows that we have dust for a man's 


father, and rock for his grandfather ; and this is certainly 
no improvement upon the evolutionist's pedigree. But 
we are told that man was made by God. There is no 
objection to this, if a rational idea goes with the word. 
If by God is meant a mighty mechanic, who manipulates 
dust or mud, moulding it into a man as a sculptor his 
clay model, there is no single fact in the history of the 
planet or of man that indicates the existence of any such 
being. But if by God is meant nature, all that is, or the 
ever-present and ever-operative spirit of the universe, then 
man was doubtless made by God, and made out of dust. 
But it is far from the dust to the man, and it has passed 
through myriads of forms to arrive at the man. "Yes, 
but I believe," says the accepter of miracles, " that man 
was made instantly and full-grown." But, if man was 
made instantly and full-grown, how were the other forms 
of life made? Were they also made full-grown in an 
instant, " whales in their bigness," birds full-feathered, 
horses with six-year-old teeth? If they were, there still 
remains to be accounted for the mighty host that rioted 
in water and air and on land during the geologic ages. 
Were all the specific forms of the geologic times created 
full-grown? The Silurian beds contain species of sea- 
weeds, corals, star-fish, crinoids, trilobites, shells, and 
fishes, that are never found in the Devonian beds above 
them nor in the Cambrian and Laurentian beds below. 
So the Devonian beds contain thousands of species of 


plants, corals, shells, and crustaceans, no vestige of which 
has ever been found in the carboniferous beds above 
them. Every geologic formation has its characteristic 
species that are never found outside of it : one by one 
old forms die out, as the stars go down in the west ; and 
one by one new types of life come into being, till the old 
are all gone, and all forms are new. But this is not only 
true of the great formations, like the Silurian and Devo- 
nian : it is equally true of every group of rocks into which 
the formations are divided. In the Potsdam sandstone, 
the lowest group of the Silurian in the United States, we 
find protozoans, radiates, mollusks, and articulates of 
many species, that are never found in the calciferous 
sandstone, the next group above it ; the calciferous sand- 
stone contains fossils that are not to be found in the 
Trenton limestone that overlies it ; and the Trenton con- 
tains hundreds of species that are never seen in the 
Niagara, Clinton, and Onondaga groups of the upper 
Silurian. Does any man suppose that by miraculous 
creation, when the Potsdam sandstone was laid down, a 
few small shells were made and planted in a sandy coast, 
a few unbranching sea-weeds on the wave-washed rock, 
and a number of trilobites sent swimming over the water, 
but in the time of the calciferous sandstone, the old 
forms having died out, a new set of seaweeds were cre- 
ated and planted with longer and branching stems, a new 
set of shells with extra whorls, and a number of new 


trilobites with shorter tails and narrower heads ? The man 
who entertains such an idea must beheve in a new crea- 
tion for every new island and lake, as well as for every 
geological group, during the whole past period of our 
planet's history, — and all this for nothing; for a miracle- 
worker could have blown the planet cool in one moment, 
and set man upon a finished world in the next. Profess- 
or Owen, referring to the fact that all the old coral polyps 
had four rays or multiples of four, and all the recent ones 
six, or multiples of six, says, " These grand old groups 
have had their day, and are utterly gone. When we en- 
deavor to conceive or realize the miraculous mode of 
origin, not of these only, but of their manifold success- 
ors, the miracle by the very multiplication of its manifes- 
tations becomes incredible, inconsistent with any worthy 
conception of an all-seeing, all-provident omnipotence. 
It is not above, but against, reason ; and I may assume 
the special primary creative hypothesis of the successive 
and co-existing species of anthozoa to be not now held 
by the scientific naturalist." But if scientific naturalists 
do not believe that the different species of anthozoa, or 
coral animals, were created by miracle, how can they 
believe that other species of animals, in which the dif- 
ference can hardly be considered greater, were created 
by miracle, such as the different species of trilobites and 
cephalopods that crowded the ancient seas? and if these 
were not created by miracle, what forms of life were ? It 


is safe to say, that, as to the gaze of all intelligent persons, 
miracle has vanished from the earth as we now behold 
it, so will it vanish from the earth of all the geologic 
past, and it will be universally acknowledged that the 
earth is alive, in consequence of the living spirit that 
embraces every atom, and that it clothes itself with plants 
and produces animals as naturally as a tree clothes itself 
with leaves and produces blossoms and fruits. 

But I hear another objection : "That we are the de- 
scendants of apes, is one of the most debasing thoughts 
that ever entered the human mind ; and it shows to what 
depths of degradation men will sink when they depart 
from the living truth." Well, if we are not descended 
from some animal bearing a strong resemblance to living 
apes, how did we come into existence? The answer I 
hear is, " Man was created in the fulness of time, the 
world having been made and prepared for his advent, 
not in the image of a brutal ape, but in the image of 
God his maker ; for the Word declares, ' in the image of 
God created he him.' " Then I see that magnificent man : 
upright as a palm, with a forehead more perfect than that 
of Apollo ; no passion had ever distorted his noble coun- 
tenance, no lie had ever passed out of the gate of his 
ruby lips ; intelligence beams from his eyes ; and, as he 
walks, we say, "There goes a god." And his companion ! 
language fails us to describe her : the lily and the rose 
vie for supremacy upon her cheeks, her eyes are briglit 


as the evening star, her breath is sweeter than the violet's 
scent, and her voice more melodious than a choir of. 
angels. I see the lovely pair as they walk through a para- 
dise of ravishing beauty, the boughs of the trees bending 
as they pass, that they may partake of their blushing 
fruit : daily they live in the smile of God and one another. 
Then I look over the earth, and behold humanity as it 
now is : sooty skins, thick hps, flat noses, wedge-shaped 
foreheads, apish arms, hairy bodies, spindle shanks, pro- 
tuberant bellies, and faces that seem as if some farcical 
fiend had made them ; while their minds and habits are 
in harmony with their bodies, tobacco-poisoned mouths, 
betel-stained lips, alcohol-fired brains, born thieves, rest- 
less murderers, souls in which passion rages like a furious 
storm and the brute is master of the man. And all this 
in less than six thousand years ! At the same rate of de- 
gradation where will our offspring be in six thousand more 
years ? Some of them chattering monkeys, fighting with 
their hairy brothers among the wild-orange groves of 
Florida ; in six thousand more, grunting hogs, pushing 
each other for the mast that autumn shakes to the 
ground ; then, slimy reptiles crawling over the ruins 
where men have been ; others, retaining the human form, 
sink in iniquity till the earth becomes one vast pande- 
monium of brutality and crime, and God in his mercy at 
last purifies the world by fire, and a bottomless pit swal- 
lows the degraded remnant of the race. 


But if from invisible gelatinous globules, that floated 
in the primal seas, life has advanced to crawling worm, 
balancing fish, hopping batrachian, tree-climbing marsu- 
pial, mimicking ape, to the men and women of this age, 
what may we not be in the ages to come ? Ihere is no 
song of an angel too sweet for us to sing, no glory that 
a God can bestow that we shall be unworthy to receive. 
The " degrading idea " appears to be very decidedly on 
the other side of this question. 

*/ Then I hear, " missing link," " see the immense chasm 
that separates man from the brute, a chasm that none but 
a God by miracle could bridge." There stands a pillar 
two hundred feet high, and on the summit I see a man ; 
but, what surprises me, there is nothing visible by which 
he could have attained the eminence. I say to the 
by-standers, " How did the man get on the top of the 
pillar? " — "I can tell you," replies one, "just how it was 
done : an angel came down from heaven, took him by 
the hair of the head, and set him on top of the pillar." 
This does not appear reasonable to me, and I approach 
the pillar, to discover the way in which he ascended : 
on reaching the other side, I find a ladder, reaching from 
the ground to the summit, but I notice that some of the 
rounds are wanting ; there is one space where the rounds 
are eight feet apart, and near the top there is a gap of 
full twelve feet. I return, and say to my informant, " I 
have discovered how the man got to the top of the 


pillar." — '' Oh ! " says he, " I know very well how he got 
there," — " But there is a ladder on the other side of that 
pillar, and it is infinitely more likely that he climbed to 
the top by a ladder than that he ascended in any such 
way as you teach." — " I do not beheve in your ladders," 
he replies : " I tell you an angel came down from heaven, 
lifted him up by the hair of the head, and placed him on 
the pillar." — " Did you see the angel do this ? " — " No : I 
cannot say that I saw the angel do it." — " Have you seen 
any one that did see the angel do it? " — " No : I cannot 
even say that." — " How, then, do you know that an angel 
did this?" — "There is no other way in which the man 
could get up, and an angel must have elevated him." — 
"Yes," I say, "but here is a ladder: will you not come 
and look at it?" At last he moves a few steps, and, 
casting a side-glance at the ladder, as if he were afraid of 
it, says, "Do you call that thing a ladder?" — "Yes," I 
reply, " I call that a ladder." He answers, " Look at the 
gaps, see the missing rounds : I tell you no man could 
ever climb that pillar by any such arrangement. Here is 
a space fifteen feet wide, another twenty, and still another, 
most important of all, at the very top, thirty feet wide. 
I tell you an angel came down from heaven, and elevated 
him to the top of the pillar, or he never could have got 
there." But while he is speaking, I am looking, and see 
something sticking out of the ground that attracts my 
attention. I pull, and out comes one of the missing 


rounds, which, when applied, fits in one of the vacant 
places exactly. I turn, to call the attention of my 
friend; but he is striding off, and as he goes I hear, 
"Missing links — great gaps — man — angel," till his 
voice is lost in the distance. 

So stands the subject of man's origin. There is man 
on the summit of the organic pillar, and extending from 
the very dust of the ground to him is the ladder of life. 
The miraculous origin of man is the angel-elevating 
theory, and has scarcely any thing beside its age to rec- 
ommend it. Here in the ladder are the rounds of pro- 
tozoan, articulate, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, lower 
mammal, higher mammal, man, and a multitude of 
intermediate forms. But we hear of " missing links." 
Certainly, how could it be otherwise ? A hundred years 
ago, and we did not know of the existence of the chain, 
nor dream that there were any links : now we are find- 
ing new links every year. Once the space between the 
reptile that crawls, and the bird that flies, was immense ; 
but the discovery in the Jurassic beds of the pterodactyle, 
a flying, bird-like lizard, the archeopteryx, a feathered 
animal with teeth, and a long, vertebrated tail (Fig. -^d), 
the ichthyornis and the hesperornis, in the cretaceous 
beds of Kansas, the odontopteryx in the London clay 
(Fig. 37), birds' with teeth that ally them to the reptiles, 
has furnished us with the links that almost unite those 
widely divergent types ; and we may yet find, extrava- 



gant as it may appear, every link of the chain that 
unites monad and man. 

Fig. 36. — Archeopteryx Macroura, restored. (After Owen.) 

Another objection that has been urged is, that we see 
no such changes now. It is presented in this form : " If 
men were ever developed from monkeys, why are they 

not developed now ? " 
And the questioner 
seems to expect, that, 
for the development 
theory to be true, by 
watching an orang- 
outang for a few hours 
he might see the bowed form become erect, the sloping 
forehead expand, the hair drop, and the being hold out 
his hand and inquire, "Am I not a man and a brother?" 

Fig. 37. — Skull of Odontopteryx Toliapicus, 
restored. (After Owen.) 


Not thus does development proceed. Here is a clock, the 
minute-pointer of which makes a revokition in a thou- 
sand years. We look at it at noon, and again at night, 
but observe no apparent change : we see it next day 
and the next week, but the pointer, to all appearance, 
has never moved : we should naturally believe that the 
clock was standing; yet in a thousand years it sweeps 
the entire face of the dial, and in a million years a 
thousand times. If all species of animals gave birth to 
new species at the same rate, by a process so slow as to ^ 
be imperceptible, within the space of a geologic period 
every animal would have produced thousands of new 
species. A clock might be constructed in which the 
minute-pointer would be immovable for a thousand years, 
and then make the revolution of the dial in an instant. 
Under such circumstances, those unaware of its peculiar 
mechanism, and unable, while they looked, to see a 
movement, would have but little faith in any statement 
of change that had taken place in the position of the 

Suppose we have never seen a new species come into 
being, which is not strictly correct : neither have we seen 
a new mountain-chain heaved, a new river-valley worn 
out, nor a new geological formation laid down ; but by 
careful examination we can see the processes at work, by 
which all these are being accomplished. A worm, eating 
into the heart of an apple in the autumn, is told by its 


neighbor, when it inquires where apples came from, that 
they are formed from blossoms, and that the blossoms 
are modified leaves. " Why don't we see blossoms turn 
into fruit, and leaves into blossoms, now?" says the worm. 
The answer is, " Because it would take a longer time to 
observe the process than the life of a worm would fur- 
nish ; " and on the tree of life the transformation from 
one species to another may take a longer time than the 
life of a man, or even of a nation, furnishes. 

A strong objection against the natural origin of man 
is this : " If man came from the brute, then like the 
brute man will die." If the brute becomes extinct at 
death, which is by no means certain, it would not follow 
that man would also cease to exist. Here is a green 
apple : we take out its undeveloped seeds, and plant 
them, but they die, and are resolved into dust. Here is 
a ripe apple : we take out the seeds, and bury them ; 
they do not die ; sending rootlets downward, and shoots 
upward, they grow into perfect trees. Between those 
seeds that did not grow, and these that do grow, there is 
an infinite difference, and yet what makes it? A little 
more sunshine, a longer connection with the tree and its 
vitalizing sap, and life has obtained a hold on the seed 
that can bid defiance to the wet of the autumn, the cold 
of the winter, the wind of the spring, and even make 
helpers of these to enable the seed to develop into the 
tree. In like manner I can imagine a pair of anthropo- 


morphous apes, somewhat superior to the gorilla, brutes, 
if you please, that would cease to exist at death, under 
favorable conditions giving birth to a being superior to 
themselves, with a more expanded front brain, born of 
necessity a brute, but ripening into the man, so that at 
death his spirit bids defiance to the elements, and enters 
into the spirit realm, the first of earth's inhabitants to 
occupy the fair abode. 

Lasdy, it has been said that those who advocate evolu- 
tion are desirous of driving God out of the world, and so 
reducing man to the level of the brutes, from which they 
believe him to have been derived. The belief in a me- 
chanical or day-laboring God must die with increasing 
intelligence, and it is worse than useless to attempt to 
save it ; but this is no hap-hazard world, nor is man a 
mere come-by-chance. We are not the accidental re- 
sult of a million accidents, each fortunately, yet accident- 
ally, contributing to the grand result. Nor is man a 
grand ruin, the beauty of whose fragments reveals the per- 
fection of the original structure. No almighty architect 
built after his eternal designs a magnificent palace, whose 
beauty made even celestial on-lookers rejoice, and then 
permitted a moral earthquake to shatter it, so that noth- 
ing but a divine re-creation could ever restore its pristine 

But there is a spirit in the universe, and what for want 
of a better word we must call an intelligent spirit : without 


this it is inconceivable that we could have had this living, 
growing, intelligence-permeated planet, that adorns itself 
with grassy blade and tinted flower ; without this how 
could organized life have developed like a tree, leafed in 
the vertebrates, blossomed in the lower mammals, and 
fruited in humanity, which loses its sourness as the ages 
pass, becoming more sweet and juicy as it ripens in the 
beams of a sun that shines upon all and never sets? 

If intelligence is necessary to build a house, and to 
construct a watch, how much more to produce a man ! 
his eye, that drinks in light from stars so distant that 
the light by which we behold them left them before the 
Pyramids were reared ; his ears that catch the insect's 
lazy hum as readily as the thunder's diapason ; his think- 
ing, hoping, loving soul, with its deep yearnings, its grand 
questionings, its explorations from beyond the Milky Way 
to the infinitesimal points that float in a drop. If it took 
a hundred million years to fashion man, is the wisdom, 
the power, any less than if he had been shaped out of 
mud in a moment? If in man's production a million mil- 
lion forms were brought into existence, each nearer to 
him than its predecessor, is the work any less than if in 
a moment miraculous fingers had moulded his wondrous 
frame? Infinite, unseen, intelligent spirit, life of our life, 
spirit of our spirit, to understand thee we need to be 
infinite as thou art. " Nearer to thee," will be our prayer 
as the ages of the future bear us on. 


It is true that some evolutionists have advanced very 
fanciful theories to account for the origin of life and man. 
Darwin's theory of life's commencement upon our globe 
will not bear very close scrutiny. He thinks it probable 
that " all the organic beings which have ever lived on this 
earth have descended from some one primordial form, 
into which life was first breathed by the Creator." ^ That 
all living beings have descended from one form is the 
only reasonable supposition, if we accept of undirected 
variation and natural selection as the grand agents in the 
production of species. All living beings have too much in 
common to be the product of originally different organic 
forms, accidentally operated upon by surrounding modi- 
fying circumstances. But when we attempt to reahze the 
actual performance, there is nothing in the wildest myths 
that have come down to us from the darkest ages less 
scientific or less reasonable. 

It must have been in the Laurentian or pre-Laurentian 
age when it was done. The earth is prepared, after ages 
of conflict between fire and water, for the advent of life. 
Here is the warm, shallow ocean that laves the entire 
globe, with only here and there dark, hilly islands that 
dot its surface. Life has no chance upon the land, it is 
too hot for its sustentation ; and the ocean is its only pos- 
sible home. Mr. Darwin does not inform us whether he 
believes the Creator made the original progenitor of all 

1 Supplement to Origin of Species. 


living beings, and then breathed into it the breath of hfc, 
or whether it was produced spontaneously without life, 
and then life was breathed into it. If the former, then 
we have the Creator making, breathing into, and dropping 
into the water, the lonely protozoic Adam, that is to be 
" the father of all living," a microscopic gelatinous 
globule, the single tenant of a boundless ocean. Is this 
conceivable? The creation of Adam out of dust is 
infinitely more so. If the Adamic protozoan came into 
existence spontaneously, but destitute of life, we have the 
strange fact of life's product preceding life itself; for the 
body of even a protozoan must be as much the product 
of life as the body of a whale. Imagine a Creator breath- 
ing life into a non-living protozoan, nothing miraculous 
done for the world during all the preceding ages, nothing 
miraculous done for it since. A lonely protozoan, desti- 
tute of a companion till it spontaneously divides, starts 
on its journey without map or guide, all one whether it 
becomes a griffin or a god. He who breathed into it the 
breath of life, utterly indifferent to its fate, though he has 
worked a miracle to bring it into existence, sends it out 
to be operated upon by " temperature, food, moisture," 
and " surrounding circumstances " in general ; the result 
of which is mollusk and fish, reptile and bird, mammal, 
and man, with his forehead to the sky, and his soul read- 
ing the book of the universe. Nothing more improbable 
was ever dreamed, nothing less reasonable was ever writ- 


Follow this protozoic and protoplasmic Adam. He 
becomes constricted in the middle; the constriction 
deepens and widens till it divides the verdant ball in two, 
and now there is a pair, identical in every respect. Each 
of them becomes the parent of a child, his very image, 
for he is his half. What chance is there for this self- 
dividing protozoan to take the next organic step ? About 
the same chance that there is by planting willow-slips to 
raise an orange-tree. Leave out spiritual direction in the 
development of life, and the wisest man is as helpless to 
account for what we behold as the unschooled child. 

My opinion is that in every atom of every organized 
being is a perfect spiritual type, constantly seeking per- 
fect expression in material form. When conditions are 
unfavorable the resultant individuals are imperfect, and 
become more imperfect when the conditions become 
more unfavorable, as the ancestor of the a^nblyopsis be- 
came blind by a life in the Mammoth Cave ; and when 
conditions are favorable the individuals approach nearer 
the perfect type, as the human race becomes more per- 
fect with every generation, being constantly surrounded 
by more perfect conditions. A fragment of the leaf of a 
begonia, with proper treatment, will make a complete 
plant ; a newt renews its limbs when they are cut off, and 
a mince-meat piece of a hydra will grow into a whole 
animal. This is not so very remarkable if the tendency 
to form the individual resides in every atom ; but, unless 


there is a spiritual type within every portion of the hydra, 
what directs the growth of the fraction, develops its tenta- 
cles, and endows the perfect animal with intelligence ne- 
cessary to lasso its prey? We have not yet seen perfect 
apples, pears, grapes, corn, or wheat ; the perfect horse, 
bos, sheep, dog, and man has yet to appear : but these 
have been advancing toward perfection for millions of 
years, and will, I think, become counterparts of their 
spiritual ideals before our planet cleaves to its centre, and 
dies. An apple grown in a bottle can be made into the 
shape of a cylinder ; an oak can be dwarfed to a tree 
twelve inches high, and yet bear acorns ; the forehead of 
a child can be pressed into the shape of an inclined plane, 
and the body of a fashionable lady can be made to re- 
semble an hour-glass. Yet in all these cases the tendency 
remains to produce the perfect form. Break the bottle, 
and the apple commences to swell in the middle and 
assume the rotund shape of its neighbors ; feed the 
dwarfed oak liberally, and give its roots room, and it be- 
gins at once to tower; take off the corset, and the 
waist of a lady becomes more like that of a woman. So, 
through all the early geologic ages, the tendency to pro- 
duce our grains, fruits, birds, beasts, and men existed ; 
but the surrounding conditions were unfavorable for their 
production, and low and imperfect types were the result. 
Early types of life have vanished, because the conditions 
that rendered them possible have departed, and new 


types have come into being, as improved conditions ren- 
dered higher expressions of the perfect spiritual type pos- 
sible. Were the conditions surrounding us absolutely 
perfect, then man would also be, and ugliness, misery, 
and sin would be unknown. 


It would seem at this time that among thoroughly 
intelligent people there is no room for doubt of man's 
natural origin. But to endow matter with the ability to 
make a living world and a thinking man, is to endow it 
with all but infinite power and absolute wisdom. There 
is evidently that in the universe which the knife of the 
anatomist cannot reveal, which the most delicate test of 
the chemist cannot detect, which the human eye by the 
aid of the most perfect instrument can never hope to see. 
It accomplishes with apparently the greatest ease what 
the combined power and intelligence of all humanity 
would shrink from attempting : even the leaf of an oak 
mocks the artists of a world. This in the universe, whose 
operation is everywhere visible, but whose essence for- 
ever eludes us, is infinitely more potent than all else ; as 
much superior to what our senses reveal as that which 
sees is to the eye of a dead man, as that which thinks 
is to the phosphorus we apply to our matches. I call 


this the infinite spirit, to whose influence, infinitely more 
than all else, we owe our existence upon this planet, the 
laws of nature being merely its methods of operation. 



As there are pointers that indicate the natural and 
brute origin of man, so there are pointers that indicate 
man's spiritual and divine origin. One of the most sig- 
nificant of these is the 


In the development of the earth there has been a 
progress toward humanity from the start, till he appeared 
of whom the mute prophets of all ages have borne 

Many years ago I visited a factory for making cloth, 
in Woonsocket, R.I. I first went into the sorting-room, 
where the raw material was brought, and separated into 
heaps, of various degrees of fineness, for the work 
needed to be done. From this to where the wool was 
washed, and laid in heaps, as pure as the drifted snow. I 
followed it to the dyeing-room, where various colors were 
given to it, according to the uses to which it was to be 
applied. I saw it carded, spun, woven, and finished ; and 


in the ultimate product, cloth, I saw that for which the 
various processes throughout had been employed. For 
this the nimble fingers of the sorters, for this the dye-tubs 
steaming hot, the whirring wheels, the long-drawn threads, 
and the clattering looms in which they interlocked. 
Every movement of every hand and eye, the step of every 
foot, the motion of every wheel, contributed to the result. 
From the giant water-wheel that revolved in the darkness 
to the flying bobbin, from the broad connecting belt to 
the tiniest thread that joined in the mazy dance and 
linked hands with its dancing neighbors, one spirit ani- 
mated the whole, and the one end, cloth, was kept in 
sight continually. 

As geology enables me to look at the earth, I see it to 
be a great factory for making men out of granite. There 
is quite a difference, however, between this factory and 
that at Woonsocket. That was presided over by an out- 
side intelligence, and power that planned and kept it in 
motion. When the water-wheel broke, they repaired it ; 
when a belt snapped, they joined it ; when a cog broke, 
they replaced it. During every minute, everywhere in 
that factory, outside intelligence and power were brought 
to bear, or the making of cloth would have instantly 
ceased. Not so with this factory : its presiding power 
resides within. Imagine a factory that could mend its 
belts, make new wheels, and, if need be, new spinning- 
frames and new looms, by its own inherent power, and 
then you imagine a factory that resembles our planet. 


Sweep out of existence all the men in the world except 
the most brutal Bushmen of Africa, with their protruding 
lower jaws, their retreating foreheads and ape-like faces, 
and in time from them might spring physical symmetry 
and high mental endowment, Apollos and Venuses, Ho- 
mers and Shakspeares. We beheve this because there 
was a time, when, where the highest types of men are 
to-day, men inferior to the lowest Australians existed. 
From them have come the best living specimens of our 
race ; and we have every reason to believe that by the 
operation of the same power a similar result would be 

The poet often sees farther and deeper than the man 
of science, who frequently strains his physical eyes in 
looking, so that his spiritual eyes are blind. Walt Whit- 
man is right when he says : — 

"Afar down I see the huge first nothing; 
I know I was even there. 

I waited unseen and always, and slept through the lethargic mist, 
And took my time, and took no hurt from the fetid carbon. 
Long I was hugged close, — long and long. 
Immense have been the preparations for me, 
Faithful and friendly the arms that have helped me ; 
Cycles ferried my cradle, rowing and rowing like cheerful boat- 
For room to me stars kept aside in their own rings ; 
They sent influences to look after what was to hold me. 
Before I was born out of my mother, generations guided me. 


My embryo has never been torpid, nothing could overlay it. 

For it the nebula cohered to an orb, 

The long, slow strata were piled to rest it on. 

Vast vegetables gave it sustenance, 

Monstrous sauroids transported it in their mouths, and deposited 

it with care. 
All forces have been steadily employed to complete and delight 

Now I stand on this spot with my soul." 

Look down on the hell our earth once was. Here are 
mounting flames that leap and sink and roll, as they are 
swept by hurricane blasts over the shoreless, fiery sea. 
Rivers of glowing metal are flowing over the sun-like 
surface, amber, blue, and red, so bright that they dazzle 
our eyes. Where is the promise of man in all this? 
Little do these fiery tides look like the crimson currents 
that are to flow through his veins ; or the ruddy banks 
that bound them like the flesh that shall enshrine him ; 
or the scorching breath like the air that shall pass peace- 
fully through his lips, and feed his lungs. Yet here, in 
this fiery hell, is the spirit that shall develop the world 
into an earthly paradise, and produce man, and make 
him its worthy lord. 

Rolling with those fiery waves, leaping with those 
ruddy flames, and flowing with that ardent breath, are all 
the forests of all ages, the birds that are to sing in their 
boughs, the insects that shall feed upon their leaves, the 


beasts that shall browse upon their branches or crop the 
herbage beneath them. 

And in this boundless furnace, and the smoky atmos- 
phere that surrounds it, lies all of which man is to be 
composed. Here is that which shall make his bones, 
and the flesh that shall clothe them, the blood that shall 
permeate it, and the nerves that are to bind it into a sen- 
tient whole ; the eyes that shall drink in light from distant 
suns, the brains of the world's thinkers, and all that shall 
evolve from them ; above all, the tendency that shall 
cause matter to move through countless aeons on the 
broad highway to man ; and thus you and I were 
there. The world was pregnant with man ; and the geo- 
logic formations present to us, in their fossils, so many 
steps of the gestative process by which he was brought 

Millions of years pass away, and we look again. How 
changed ! The fiery sea is gone, the flames are dead, 
the metals have sunk to their cavern homes ; and here is 
rock, heated rock, dull red in places, bare, black, deso- 
late, craggy. Thousands of rimmed craters scar the 
earth's face \ and we shudder as we look at the lifeless 
wilderness, that seems doomed to sterility forever. 

There is little promise here of man, yet the world is 
one step nearer. Fire and frost are the great antagonists 
of life, and man's empire lies between them. Fire has 
been subdued. In this black crust we see the operation 


of cohesion; and within it lurks silex, that shall enter 
into the composition of his teeth, and lime and phos- 
phorus that shall help to make his bones. The age of 
minerals was necessary to collect the materials to build 
man's wonderful fabric, as well as lay the foundation on 
which it should stand. 

A few million years more pass away, and we look 
again through the geologic telescope. Here is water 
boiling hot, and steam arising in dense clouds ; lakes 
rolling about on obsidian plains, like drops of water on 
a hot stove, till they are dissipated into vapor. Spouting 
geysers send up immense columns of water and steam, 
and others intermittingly discharge fountains of black 
mud. Yonder are islands rising and sinking, like bub- 
bles on the waves, obedient to the disturbing forces 
beneath them ; volcanoes bellow, and earthquakes con- 
stantly shake the rising ground. 

" But I see nothing like man, nor even life," says the 
on-looker : " it is as impossible here as in a boiling cal- 
dron." Very true, but you must be patient : the gods 
need time as truly as the men. We are a step nearer : 
here is water, that important element in the construction 
of his body. This will help to form the blood that shall 
course through his veins, and carry to every part the 
material of which his frame shall be built. Distilled on 
the earth, it shall cool the heat of the burning day, and 
make those plants grow that shall constitute his food. 


These islands are the starting-points of continents, on 
which he sliall hve, and without them he could not be. 
Examine those rocks, and you will find quartz and mica, 
felspar and hornblende, and beautiful crystals of these 
and other materials lining the sides of crevices. A 
manifestation of life is here ! Only mineral life, it is 
true, but life that causes atoms to collect and cohere in 
regular geometrical forms. In them we see the symme- 
try that will characterize the future man, and the order 
and beauty that will appear in his fabric. 

Let us look again. The Cambrian age dawns, and 
vegetable and animal life are here. What a step is this ! 
Here is life that takes up foreign matter, and yet forms 
an individual in which destruction and construction will 
go on together to make it perfect. The first story of 
humanity is built : all before this only prepared the 
ground, and laid the foundation. Story after story will 
now be constructed, as the ages go, till man at last is 
placed, the top-stone. 

Peering into the water of a sheltered bay, calm as a 
baby's sleep, we behold the early embodiments of life. 
Here are masses of jelly that cover in spots the bottom 
of the ocean, formed of the bodies of united proto- 
zoans, that secrete lime and build cells, communicating 
with each other, till calcareous reefs are formed, that 
pave the bottom of the sea. Here, too, are fan-like 
forms, rooted like plants, their beautiful branches out- 
spread, all covered with buds, and every bud an animal. 


Changes take place now with greater rapidity. Life 
has obtained foothold, and moves on with giant strides 
to its goal, humanity. It is the Silurian time : fucoids 
hair-like, string-like, ribbon-like, make a dense mat on 
the rough rocks ; shells innumerable strew the sandy 
shore, and the tenants of others are crawling over the sea- 
bottom. Let us examine one of these. It is a gaster- 
opodous mollusk, — a sea-snail. What an advance is this 
upon all previous forms that we have seen ! Here is 
what we may call a head, furnished with eyes ; a mouth, 
for the reception of food, and tiny teeth. Within the 
mouth is a tongue, and from it a stomach and intestinal 
canal, that traverses the body with varying convolutions. 
A heart, though with only two cavities, forces blood into 
the arteries, which branch to all parts of the body ; and a 
large liver assists the gills, by which the blood is purified, 
and fitted for the uses of the body. There is a nervous 
swelling in the head, that we may almost call a brain ; 
nerves ramifying through every part of the body ; and a 
pair of auditory organs, by which it hears, perchance, 
the calls of its snaily neighbors, hid among the branches 
of the sea-weed upon which it feeds. It is only a snail, 
it is true : but how much of man there is even here ; and, 
among the innumerable variations that shall take place 
among the living beings that shall inhabit the earth, life 
will never sink below the step she has now taken. Many 
will branch to the right, and others to the left ; but the 


main trunk rises continually, whose branches shall bear 
man as their fruit. 

With this advance has been an equal advance in all 
that is favorable to still higher beings. The air is purer ; 
poison has been eliminated from it, condensed, and 
buried at the bottom of the sea ; the water is less pol- 
luted with foreign material ; the islands have been en- 
larged j mountains raise their heads upon them, green to 
their cloud-capped summits, for vegetable life has seized 
upon the land, and lowly plants adorn the universal 


What are these that go flashing through the waters, 
with glittering scales of bone ? These are fishes, small, 
it is true, but what a step man-ward they indicate ! Here 
is man's backbone ; for, though cartilaginous, it performs 
the same office, as it occupies the same place, as that 
jointed, bony structure in man. Within it is the great 
spinal nerve ; and at the head of it the brain, lodged in a 
bony box to hold and protect it, whose parts have the 
same names as those in the skull of man. Here are 
head, face, an eye on each side, mouth beneath, teeth, 
stomach, liver, gall, swim- bladder, prophesying of lungs, 
and four fins with little bones within, showing us where 
man's finger-bones shall eventually grow. Why, it is a 
litde, scaly water-man, almost as near to him as a life in 
the water will permit. It can propel itself by its limbs, 
see and hear, hope and fear, love and hate ; and more 


than the foundation of both man's physical and mental 
nature was laid when the first fishes appeared. 

Do not imagine, however, that the road to man was a 
highway smooth and plain, along which life moved to 
him without a jolt. The development of life was in 
some respects like the growth of a tree ; but there were 
fearful storms, breaking off innumerable branches, sweep- 
ing off leaves and blossoms, but leaving a trunk that sent 
out new and stronger branches, for the urgent spirit was 
within, that carried it on to greener leaves and fairer 
blossoms. There were times when volcanic outbursts 
destroyed living beings over wide areas, as the prairie 
fires sweep off the grass ; but as the prairie renews its 
beauty after the fire, so the world has renewed itself a 
miUion times. 

Years pass, as drops down a flowing river, and we are 
in the Devonian age. Taller mountains pierce the sky, 
larger islands dot the sea, and broader rivers pour their 
turbid streams into the ocean. In the swamps are slen- 
der plants with curly tops, tall reeds also, with long, flat, 
fleshy leaves ; and calamites, like giant horse-tails, wave 
their tapering tops. Trees of considerable size adorn 
the distant mountains, while tree-ferns abound on the 
lower grounds. Flowers gem the ground and make fra- 
grant the air, dragon-flies flit around the rivers, and a 
cricket-like chirp enlivens the hitherto silent woods. We 
sail over the sea^ and mark in its blue depths the vari- 


oiisly colored and variously shaped polyps, forming 
branching trees and reefs that extend for miles, whose 
honeycomb-like cells are filled with the oil that they 
have secreted and stored, light and fuel for the coming 
ages. Myriads of fishes are here, some, like the Ptet- 
ichthys Milleri, no longer than a man's finger, and others 
in increasing size to the dinichthys, or terrible fish, from 
twenty-five to thirty feet in length. This is the age of 
fishes, when the vertebrate foundation was broadened 
and deepened, on which the palace of humanity was to 
be reared. Fishes were then the kings of the world : 
they ruled for ages : and from this royal family, along 
many independent lines, life descended and ascended to 

Following the Devonian age came the carboniferous, 
the great coal-forming period in the world's history. 
Now continental areas appear above the contending 
waves, and immense swamps are filled with luxuriant 
vegetation, club-mosses, tree-ferns, and calamites every- 
where. Young trees, like large cabbages, are springing 
out of the spongy ground, and unrolling their ferny 
fronds. What a tangled wilderness is this I we push 
and climb and wade through its depths, trunks above 
trunks, trunks across trunks, branches interlocking, and 
almost shutting out the light of day. We are now on 
the margin of a lake, and notice the bony-plated fishes 
that swarm in the waters ; we walk along the beach, and 



are as startled as Robinson Crusoe was, when he discov- 
ered the tracks of a man on what he had supposed was 
a desolate island ; for here is a five-digited track, look- 
ing as if stamped by some rude little hand. It is the 
track of some animal whose fore-feet are small and four- 
toed, and its hind-feet much larger and five-toed. (Fig. 
38.) Vertebrate life has advanced from water to land, 
a grand stage nearer to 
man. As we advance we 
discover frog-like amphib- 
ians, with enormous heads, 
and large conical teeth ; 
snake-like amphibians, 
that wriggle through the 
woods, and even climb the 
trees ; triangular - headed 
amphibians, with sharp 
teeth, Hving principally in 
the water, as their exterior 
gills indicate, feeding on 

the fishes that their great- Fig. 38.- Slnb of Sandstone with Amphibi- 

er intelligence enables an Footprints, from the Coal-Measures 
^ of Pennsylvania, X lo. 

them to catch. Here 

are animals entirely destitute of gills, that breathe the 
vital air by lungs alone. They have emerged from the 
watery grave in which the highest forms of life have been 
buried for vast ages, and have been at last resurrected 


to a new life. On to manhood now, with a firm step, 
march the Hving hosts. 

Thousands of years again pass, as cloud-shadows over 
the prairies, and it is the age of reptiles, the heart of the 
Jurassic period. Great cycads overshadow the land, the 
enormous leaves of some drooping from their lofty 
crowns to the very ground. Pines clothe loftier moun- 
tains than the world has ever before seen, and ferns of 
many species beautify the woods, that grow wherever 
land exists, the earth around. 

Basking on the rocks are scaly monsters ; floating on 
the surface of the sea and diving in its waters are saurians 
as large as whales, whose combats redden the ocean with 
their blood ; reptiles on bat-like wings are in the air, fly- 
ing dragons, relentless marauders. Reptiles are now the 
masters ; in their turn, kings of the world ; but prepara- 
tions are making for their overthrow. Do you see that 
pine which has fallen across the mountain-torrent? upon 
its trunk is a small mammal, no larger than a squirrel ; but 
it marks the introduction of a new race, that shall cause 
all others to sink into insignificance. It is a marsupial, 
and of inferior organization : but its brain is the largest 
that has appeared, in proportion to the size of the animal ; 
its offspring are for a time nourished in the womb and 
cherished at the breast ; and life has passed on another 
stage nearer to man. 

Now it is the tertiary age, the age of mammals. Enor- 


mous elephants wander through forests that can hardly 
be distinguished from those of our warm temperate re- 
gions to-day. Lions and tigers lurk in the thickets, horse- 
like animals feed in the natural meadows, on whose 
skirts great wolves are watching them. Tapiroid animals 
are bathing in the water, and rhinoceroses are wallowing, 
like enormous hogs, in the pools by the river's side. The 
mountains are higher than we have before seen them, and 
snow for the first time appears on their tops. We can 
distinguish the condnents, as we know them to-day, 
though considerable change has taken place in their 
shape. The scene is so familiar, we look for man, but 
look in vain. Aha ! here are his long-armed, hairy repre- 
sentatives, the apes, swinging from bough to bough, and 
tree to tree, and feeding upon the wild figs that grow 
luxuriantly on the trees that skirt the wood. Here are 
man's eyes and nose and mouth, his teeth and stomach, 
his bony skeleton, in short, in every particular ; his heart, 
his brain, his anger and love, his hate and revenge, his 
hope and fear, his gluttony and selfishness. The old ape 
scolds and threatens ; the young apes chatter, and at his 
approach they run. The beast is playing man. 

The beasts, however, advanced in brain-capacity during 
the tertiary period, that we can only consider millions of 
years in length. The early mammals of the eocene are 
noted for the smallness of their brains. Look at the 
skull and brain-cavity of the dinoceras (Fig. 39), a mam- 



Fig. 39. — Dinoceras, Skull and Brain, X 16. 

(After Marsh.) 

mal whose remains were found in the eocene beds of 
Wyoming by Marsh. The brain had only one-eighth the 

capacity of that of a 
rhinoceros of the 
same size. The earh- 
est monkeys had the 
smallest and smooth- 
est brains of all the 
monkeys. The oldest 
horses of the tertiary 
are those having the smallest brains, and brain-power 
increases with every geologic step as we advance. 

At last appears the world's master, — he for whom all 
forces have labored for a million ages. Stunted, but 
brawny, hairy, nearly erect, dumb, naked, with enormous 
eyebrows, bushy hair that hangs down in snaky locks, his 
forehead "villanously low:" he wanders through the 
forest, stick in hand, with which he strikes the loose bark 
of trees, and appropriates the fat white worms as they 
drop at his feet. Now he is up a hundred feet high, 
shaking the branches ; and his laugh is echoed from the 
rocks a mile away, as the fruit rains upon the ground. 
He is down and running, as fleet as a deer, to a river's 
bank : we miss him, it is but for a moment ; we turn a 
bend of the stream, and here is a cave, and men, women, 
and children, to whom he gesticulates ; and out a party 
sallies under his leadership, and make their breakfast on 



the fruit which he has found. But fruit is not their only 
food. We see on the floor of the cave the bones of 
bears and wild hogs, of elephants and horses, caught by 
running them into bogs. Can it be ? It is, a man's skull : 
why, these are cannibals ! Too true : such was man 
about the close of the tertiary time. But man, a canni- 
bal even, is far in advance of all that preceded him : 
give him time, and, by the aid of that spirit that bore 
him, he will outgrow cannibalism and even war. Out of 
such as these have come Greece and Rome, Egypt and 
Judaea, Moses and Jesus, Shakspeare and Goethe, Par- 
ker and Garrison, — only, however, in consequence of 
that continuous tendency, which, infinitely more than all 
else, has made us what we are. 

The Darwinian theory gives us no clew to the cause 
of this progress. Darwin acknowledges that we are igno- 
rant of the cause of variation,^ though he subsequently 
refers to "surrounding circumstances" as the cause. 
Huxley says that " every variation depends in some sense 
upon external conditions, seeing that every thing has a 
cause of its own ; " - and he refers to " temperature, food, 
warmth, and moisture," as among these external condi- 
tions ; they are the only ones he mentions, and he evi- 
dently regards them as the most important. Warmth is 
only that state of temperature that is a little higher than 
the heat of our own bodies ; consecjuently we have as 

1 Origin of Species, p. 120. - Ibid., p. S9 


the principal external conditions that produce variation, 
according to Huxley, temperature, food, and moisture. 
Had there been no variation, there could have been no 
advancement, there would have been no chance for the 
operation of natural selection. We have then presented 
by Huxley, as the grand causes for the production of fish, 
bird, mammal, and man, temperature, moisture, and food. 
These, then, are the gods, but how utterly impotent are 
they ! What is there in warmth, water, and food to 
advance a protozoan to a radiate, a worm to a fish, and 
an ape to a man ? A frost in the spring-time stops the 
growth of the cucumber-plants, and the heat of a hotbed 
with water and food causes them to grow in the heart of 
winter ; but what could these do in the formation of plant 
or leaf, if the life-bearing seed was not present ? Food 
can make a hog fat, with suitable temperature and a 
proper proportion of water ; but how long must the farmer 
feed it before it shall take wings, and change its sty for 
the eagle's eyry? Changes as great as that have taken 
place during the geologic epochs ; and to attribute them 
to food, warmth, and water, may be considered philoso- 
phical, but is certainly not reasonable. 

Add the influence of natural selection to the effect 
produced by warmth, food, and moisture, and how far can 
we then advance ? Natural selection preserves a varia- 
tion that is beneficial to the individual, because those 
that do not possess it, in the struggle for life are over- 


come, and die. If variation without tendency could have 
made a protozoan like a radiate, what advantage would it 
have been? where the radiata can live, so can the proto- 
zoa ; and they thrive well at the bottom of the deep seas, 
where radiates are almost entirely wanting. What, then, 
should have produced the progressive step from protozoa 
to radiata? What beneht could it have been to a radiate 
to become a worm, or a worm to be transformed into a 
fish? Life might just as well have continued in these 
lower forms as long as the planet could produce them. 
Why, then, this steady, continuous advance through the 
ages to man ? Start an ant from Boston to the Mosque 
of Omar in Jerusalem, and the chances would be greater 
of its arriving there than of life arriving at man, from its 
first organic start in the Laurentian or pre-Laurentian 
time, without a guide. 


As the individual development of animals in the womb 
of the parent is an evidence of the natural origin of spe- 
cies, so the race development of animals in the womb of 
time is an evidence of their spiritual origin. Take the 
horse : the earliest horse-like animal known to us is 
called by Professor Marsh the eohippus (the dawn-horse). 
This was certainty a million of years before the appear- 
ance of the true horse, and in all probability two or 
three millions. Professor Marsh says, " In the structure 


of the feet and in the teeth, the eohippus indicates un- 
mistakably that the direct ancestral line to the modern 
horse has already separated from the other perissodac- 
tyles." ^ As early as this, then, the ancestors of the horse 
had separated from the other odd- toed, hoofed quadru- 
peds, and started for the goal, — the modern horse ; and 
during all the subsequent ages they never left the track, 
though there were many stragglers that turned to the 
right and left, and were lost. 

The day follows the dawn because the sun is below 
the horizon and is rising ; and the horse followed the 
dawn-horse because the spiritual ideal of the horse was 
below the geological horizon, and only time and favorable 
conditions were needed for its perfect embodiment. 

As we advance toward the present time, we find the 
orohippiis, which is a little larger than the eohippus, and 
shows a greater resemblance to the modern horse. The 
mesohippus, which follows, in the lower miocene, is about 
as large as a sheep, and, as Professor Marsh says, is " one 
stage nearer the horse." In the upper miocene comes 
?niohippus, which " continues the line." In the lower 
pliocene comes protohippus, still more like a horse ; and 
in the upper pliocene the pliohippiis (more horse), the 
most horse-like of all the equine ancestry ; and following 
this comes the true horse : every step is a step horseward. 
The man who saw an artist making a statue could not be 

* Introduction and Succession of Vertebrate Life in America, p. 31. 


more certain that he was following an ideal, as the block 
became more and more like a man, than we can be that 
Nature was following an ideal, as she brought into exist- 
ence these successively more and more horse-hke forms, 
till the animal appeared as he is known to us to-day. 
What caused these forms to approach nearer and nearer 
to the horse in a direct line for millions of years ? To 
answer, " struggle for life," " survival of the fittest," 
"natural selection," " moisture, food, and warmth," and 
ask us to accept these as sufficient to account for it, is to 
make a demand on our credulity such as no defender of 
dogmatic theology ever surpassed. There never was a 
keener struggle for life among inferior animals than there 
has been since man appeared on the planet, — a struggle 
so keen that in it many have gone down, and others are 
rapidly approaching extinction ; yet we not only fail to 
see a new species developed as a consequejice of this 
struggle, but we do not even see a step taken in that 

Swine, camels, deer, oxen, elephants, and other mam- 
mals were preceded during the tertiary period by many 
species of animals allied to them, and approaching nearer 
at every step to the animals at present known by those 
names. There were numerous offshoots, such as varia- 
tion, modification, and natural selection might produce ; 
but these died out, as the lower branches of a tree so 
frequently die, the main stem continuing toward the 


perfect type. Undirected variation, even when aided by 
natural selection, offers no sufficient explanation of these 
facts. As far as we can see, the orohippus was just as 
well adapted to its surroundings as the horse, and would 
have subsisted just as well in our meadows as the horse, 
thoudi it would have been much less serviceable to man. 



Another pointer which indicates man's spiritual origin, 
as well as the spiritual origin of other organic beings, is 
seen in the geographical and geological distribution of 
plants and animals. By this I mean the existence of 
allied plants and animals in such geographical and geo- 
logical positions, that it seems evident they never could 
have been the descendants of the same progenitors. 
Darwin himself generously furnishes us with facts that 
cannot, I think, be explained on the principle that natural 
selection has been the most potent agent in the produc- 
tion of new species. Between forty and fifty of the 
flowering plants of Terra del Fuego, " forming no incon- 
siderable part of its scanty flora, are common to Europe, 
enormously remote as these two points are ; and there 
are many closely allied species." ^ In addition to these 
almost all the lichens, forty-eight mosses, and many other 
cryptogamous plants, are identical with species existing in 
Great Britain. But how could these, fitted for a climate 

' Origin of Species, p. 326. 


like that of the southernmost point of South America, 
migrate from Europe, or those of Europ~e migrate from 
Terra del Fuego, a distance of more than seven thousand 
miles, across a broad ocean and the heated tropics ? At 
the Cape of Good Hope, European species are found, 
which have not been discovered in the intertropical parts 
of Africa. What is still more remarkable, the plants, 
fishes, and crabs of New Zealand resemble those of 
Europe. Twenty-five species of sea-weeds are common 
to New Zealand and to Europe, that are not found in the 
tropical seas that lie between them.^ Several European 
plants are found on the southern mountains of Australia, 
and some on the lowlands. Had the European species 
wandered from Australia, or the Australian species from 
Europe, or had both wandered from some intermediate 
locahty, it does not seem possible that they could have 
been subjected to such a difference of temperature, as 
they necessarily must, for such a long period of time, 
without specific change. Should our botanists wander 
over the temperate regions of Venus, is it not probable 
that they would find mosses and grasses, see fish in its 
waters, and algae along the sea-washed shores ? If Dar- 
winians, they would then speculate upon the possibility 
of meteorites from the earth having dropped the neces- 
sary seeds upon the planet that gave rise to the allied 
forms. Two genera of salmons " from South America, 

* Origin of Species, p. 327. 


New Zealand, and Australia, are analogous to European 
salmons." ' To account for such facts, the glacial period 
is supposed to have exerted a cooling influence over the 
whole globe, so that during its continuance plants may- 
have been able to migrate over what are now intervening 
hot spaces; but the more we know of the glacial period, 
the more restricted are we led to regard the influence 
of the cold during the time, and any refrigeration of 
the climate of the tropics sufficient to allow of the migra- 
tion of north temperate plants across them would have 
been sufficient to destroy all tropical vegetation. 

The mariner finds on the rocks of the South Shetland 
Islands, lying to the south of Cape Horn, patches of 
grass, mosses, and lichens, closely resembling those that 
he sees on the rocks of Iceland, as far north of the equa- 
tor as that is south. Are these descended from the same 
progenitors ? or are they not independent developments 
from spontaneously generated microscopic organisms, 
under the influence of that tendency toward certain defi- 
nite forms which operates in the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms, as all acknowledge that it does in the mineral 
kingdom ? 

Great breadth of separation, either in time or space, 
is generally represented by great organic differences, the 
species of different geologic formations and of different 
continents being but seldom alike ; yet the resemblances 

J Mivart's Genesis of Species, p. 163, 


that are found between the animals and plants of the 
various geologic periods, and on widely separated portions 
of our planet, point to some other cause than community 
of descent for their explanation. 

In the slaty rocks at Braintree near Boston, which are 
sometimes called Cambrian and sometimes primordial, 
for they are older than the Potsdam sandstone, we find 
a large trilobite, Paradoxides Harlani. In Bohemia, 
Austria, in beds of about the same age, we find also a 
large trilobite very similar to it, Paradoxides Bohemiciis. 
The places where they lived were separated by many 
thousand miles, and the progenitors of the two species 
must have been apart, we may reasonably suppose, for 
ages ; yet the variation is exceedingly slight. 

At Cincinnati in Ohio ; Richmond, Ind. ; Frankfort, 
Ky. ; Trenton, N.Y. ; and Mineral Point, Wis., — we find 
a trilobite, Calymene sejiaria. A quite similar trilobite is 
found at Dudley, England, and at Gothland in Sweden. 
They are found at the same, or about the same, geo- 
logical horizon in both countries ; and although the Euro- 
pean one is called by a different name, Calymene Blujn- 
e?ibachii, the only difference is that a portion of the sur- 
face of the latter is somewhat rougher than that of the 

The most common molluscous fossils in the Potsdam 
sandstone of this country, from Wisconsin to New York, 
are species of the lingula and the obolus. In beds of 


the same age in England and Bohemia, it is equally true. 
We find in the United States accompanying them a pter- 
opod of the genus Theca ; and we find this to be the 
case, both in England and Bohemia. 

When trilobites were abundant in the ocean that cov- 
ered New York and Ohio, they were equally abundant in 
the seas whose billows rolled over Utah, England, and 
Europe generally ; and when they died out in one part 
of the globe, they died out nevermore to re-appear in all 
portions of our planet. The European chain-coral of 
the Upper Silurian is identical with that which character- 
izes the Niagara group in this country, from the arctic 
regions to the Southern States. 

The resemblance between some of the lower forms of 
life, that are widely separated in time, is not less unfavor- 
able to the Darwinian hypothesis. Let any man look at 
the shells of the lingtclce, that frequently overspread the 
surface of Silurian slabs, and then look at the shells of 
modem iingiilce, and at first sight he could hardly dis- 
tinguish one from the other. Yet they are probably 
separated by fifty million years. If the HngulcB of to-day 
are the descendants of the Lower Silurian lingtdce, what 
should have preserved them almost unchanged during 
the multitudinous mutations to which every part of the 
ocean must have been subjected? 

Compare the sea-snails of the Silurian, such as belong 
to the genera Murchisofiia, Cyclonema, and Pleurotoma- 


ria, with the sea-snails on our present coasts, and the 
resemblance is so great, that ordinary observers call 
them at once by the same names. The gasteropods 
in Fig. 40 do not belong to the same genera, nor even 
the same families ; yet the resemblance in the shell-cov- 
ering is very great. Compare the ferns of the coal 

Fig. 40. — Ancient and Modern Gasteropods, natural size. i. Littorina litorea, 
a gasteropod found on the coast of New England; 2. Cyclonema bilix, a fossil 
gasteropod, from the Cincinnati group of the Lower Silurian; 3. Chlorostoma 
fimbrale, found on the Pacific coast. (Original.) 

measures with our modern ferns, and even botanists find 
it difficult to distinguish some of them from their mod- 
ern representatives. Are the snails of to-day the direct 
descendants of the marine snails of forty million years 
ago ? Is it not much more probable that they are lower 
branches of the tree of life, millions of which have 
sprouted, multitudes died, but of which there are still 
some survivors? 

If all, or nearly all, the differences that have existed 
and do exist between organic beings are the result of 
minute, undirected variations, each of which was of ben- 

142 /S DA /CIV/ A' RIGHT? 

efit to its possessor, what incessant variation must have 
taken place to produce the new species that appear with 
every new geological group ! Not only must there have 
been the variations that were useful to the individual, 
and were in consequence preserved, but the many thou- 
sand times greater number that were not useful, and 
therefore, according to the Darwinian theory, could not 
have been preserved ; in addition to these, the varia- 
tions that were useful, and were not perpetuated, in con- 
sequence of that persistency of type that characterizes 
all species of organic beings. With such incessant vari- 
ation as this theory demands, how shall we account for 
the fact that the fossiliferous rocks distributed over the 
globe can generally be distinguished by a geologist at a 
glance, in consequence of the great resemblance be- 
tween the fossils contained in them? This is not only 
true of the great formations, but it is also true of most 
of the groups of rocks into which they are divided. All 
over the planet, the fossils found in the rocks bear a 
close resemblance to those in the same geological hori- 

The facts seem to indicate that life has developed 
from distinct organic beginnings along parallel lines, as 
rapidly as the improved conditions of the planet per- 
mitted. As the tadpole remains a tadpole, unless there 
is a sufficient light to give the stimulus necessary to push 
it on to the frog stage, the tendency to which lies within 


it, SO it appears that living beings, within which lay the 
tendency to advance to higher forms, have developed 
from age to age as rapidly as the surrounding conditions 
became sufficiently favorable for a forward step to be 
possible. Better conditions have laid the higher steps 
of the organic ladder, from one geologic age to another, 
enabling hfe to climb to the summit. 

In the axolotl of Mexico we see an animal livinjj in a 
certain form for hundreds of years, and in all probability 
for thousands, perpetuating itself in the same form, yet, 
under changed conditions, suddenly transformed into an 
animal so entirely different, that a naturalist knowing 
nothing about the transformation would regard them not 
only as distinct species, but as belonging to different 
genera, if not different families. (Fig. 41.) 

The axoloti is a fish-like amphibian, ten to fifteen 
inches long, of a grayish color, spotted with black. On 
each side of the neck there are branching gills, by 
means of which it can breathe when in the water ; while 
at the same time it possesses lungs, and by their use can 
live out of the water. This animal had long been known 
to naturalists ; but their surprise was great to learn, that, 
after being carried to Paris, some of the young had 
become transformed into an entirely different animal. 
It is true we see a similar transformation in the case of 
the frog ; but the tadpole does not breed, and we have 
never regarded it as other than an immature stage of the 



frog. It has been found by repeated experiments, that 
when the young of the axolotl are removed from the 
water at a certain stage, and kept as much as possible in 
tlie air, they are transformed into amblystomas, and the 
following are a few of the changes in structure which 
result : — 

Fig. 41. — The Axolotl as it is found in Mexico. The Amblystoma into which 

it is sometimes transformed. 

1. The gills disappear, and the clefts of the gills close 

2. The crest on the back disappears. 

3. The rudder-like tail changes to a tail that is nearly 
round, like a salamander's. 

4. The ground color of the skin is changed from gray- 
ish black to a shining, greenish-black, on which yellow- 
ish-white patches are irregularly distributed. 


5. The eyes become prominent, and the pupils small; 
and eyelids are formed which can close the eye com- 
pletely, while in the axolotl the eye cannot be closed. 

6. The toes diminish in size, and lose their skin-like 

7. The palatal teeth are changed from a position in 
which they form an arched band, to one in which they 
stand in a diagonal row. 

8. In the axolotl there are in the under jaw several 
rows of small teeth, which disappear after the metamor- 

9. The anterior face of each vertebra is less concave 
in the amblystoma than in the axolotl.^ 

For the long period of time during which the axolotl 
existed in Mexico, possibly hundreds of thousands of 
years, bringing forth beings like itself, there existed 
within it the power, when conditions were favorable, to 
make a very decided advance to the form of the sala- 
mander. Why may there not have been during the past 
geologic ages a power residing in various forms of 
organic beings, to transform them into nobler forms 
of life, when conditions were such as would allow the 
transformation to take place ? 

1 See Weismann's article, On the Change of the Mexican Axolotl to an 
Amblystoma, m the Smithsonian Report for 1877. 



The persistency of type under the great changes \.<s 
which organic beings are and have been subjected is a 
pointer whose significance can hardly be over-estimated 
in this connection. If there are spiritual ideals, as I 
think, which are striving to embody themselves, and 
organic beings are the result, it is not surprising that it 
should be difficult to turn them aside ; and, even when 
they are turned aside, it is not surprising to learn that 
they readily revert to what may be nearer the spiritual 
type : but, if all beings are the result of undirected varia- 
tion and natural selection, the great stability of organic 
forms is one of the most wonderful facts in nature. Man 
is found on all continents, and, from the earliest historical 
times, has inhabited them and all large islands : he wan- 
ders over the burning sand of the tropics, and slides 
over the icy snow of the Frigid Zone ; he flourishes at 
the sea-level, and fourteen thousand feet above it ; he is 
as frugivorous as the ape, as carnivorous as the lion, as 
piscivorous as the seal, and as omnivorous as the hog ; 
yet everywhere, and under all circumstances, he always 
retains the type of his race. We find him black and 
brown, yellow and white, tall and short, fat and lean, 
bearded and beardless, savage and civilized, but still 
human. If there was no innate tendency in nature to 
produce man, and if he is not the fruit of the tree of life. 


beyond which it cannot go, why should this be ? Why 
not, during all this time, some indications in him of a 
new order of beings? If all he possesses is merely the 
product of variation that was beneficial to the individual, 
apart from tendency leading that variation in any particu- 
lar direction, why not new organs appearing in man now, 
or during the past, say, two hundred and fifty thousand 
years? Why should variation and natural selection cease 
to operate now ? A pair of eyes at the back of the head 
would be very useful, especially to a savage ; for, while 
transfixing his enemy with a spear in front, he would be 
able to see what his other enemies were doing behind 
him. An individual thus endowed, in the struggle for 
life, would be almost certain to survive, and transmit his 
back-head optics to his fortunate descendants. Another 
pair of arms to correspond with them would be of im- 
mense service. He could then wrestle with two men at 
once, gather fruit before and behind, and have a much 
greater chance to survive. Why not, among the infinite 
number of variations that must be produced, if Darwinism 
be true, buds behind the shoulders of some babies, in 
the place w^here arms ought to grow ? But we hear of 
nothing of this kind, and we see no variations that would 
lead us to think that any such thing could be possible. 
Astronomers scanning the heavens sorely need a tele- 
scopic eye, that would enable them to see as only the 
most expensive instruments now enable them. An indi- 


vidual endowed with an extra pair of eye-lenses might be 
able to see Jupiter's moons and Neptune's sateUites with 
ease, without instrumental assistance. Such a man would 
receive a larger salary, he could therefore afford to marry, 
and this valuable peculiarity would thus be likely to 
descend to his telescopic posterity. But we find no tele- 
scopic eye-sprouts, no telephonic ear indications. The 
tree never advances beyond its fruit, and I believe the 
life-tree of our planet fruited when man appeared. 

Darwin's view of the origination of new varieties, which 
are to him incipient species, is thus presented by him : 
" If organic beings in a state of nature vary even in a 
slight degree, owing to changes in the surrounding condi- 
tions, of which we have abundant geological evidence, or 
from any other cause ; if, in the long course of ages, in- 
heritable variations ever arise in any way advantageous to 
any being under its excessively complex and changing 
relations of life, — and it would be a strange fact if bene- 
ficial variations did never arise, seeing how many have 
arisen, which man has taken advantage of for his own 
profit or pleasure, — if, then, these contingencies ever 
occur, and I do not see how the probability of their 
occurrence can be doubted, then the severe and often- 
recurrent struggle for existence will determine that those 
variations, however slight, which are favorable, shall be 
preserved or selected, and those which are unfavorable 
shall be destroyed." ^ He adds on the next page, "Selec- 

^ Animals and Plants under Domestication, vol. i., p 16. 


tion does nothing without variabihty, and this depends in 
some manner on the action of the surrounding circum- 
stances on the organism." There is, according to this, 
no internal direction whatever ; and variation, under the 
influence of external circumstances, blindly changes every 
part of the structure of every animal till it produces an 
improvement that natural selection can preserve. 

If all the forms of life now on the planet have been 
thus produced by slight changes from pre-existent forms 
preserved by natural selection, the process by which it 
was accomplished, we may reasonably suppose, is still 
going on ; and, among the millions of living beings that 
now inhabit the globe, we ought to be able to see some 
on the way to new and entirely different forms, for we 
cannot conceive that the possible forms which variation 
and natural selection can produce are exhausted. Among 
reptiles, why not the first indications, at least, of a trans- 
formation of the fore-feet to wings, and the appearance of 
feathers? Why not some indications of hands to take 
the place of the hoofed feet of horses and cattle ? It is 
true that natural selection might in time destroy them, 
for hands would not be as useful to horses as feet ; but 
variation, being blind, can have no idea that hands are 
not useful to a horse. It is natural selection that decides 
whether the statues made by the blmd sculptor. Varia- 
tion, shall stand in the temple of life, or be ground to 
powder ; and it is only, according to Darwin, by variation 



blindly trying millions of times, and eventually hitting 
something worthy of preservation by natural selection, 
that hands, eyes, ears, and all other organs have been 
produced. We should find a proboscis or something 
quite as remarkable, for which we have no name, starting 
on the heads or tails of our canines ; for how can variation 

Fig. 42. — Mastiff of the time of Nebuchadnezzar. Found in the ruins of Baby- 
lon. (After Layard.) 

know that a dog does not need a trunk, and how can it 
distinguish the head from the tail? Claws might begin 
to appear on the feet of the sheep, for how should varia- 
tion know that they do not care to catch mice ? 

Dogs vary greatly : from the lap-dog to the New- 
foundland is a wide space ; but no one considers either 



to be over the line of our familiar canis, and the vari- 
ations of five thousand years have failed to take a single 
dog beyond the boundary. A difference as great as that 
between a dog and a wolf, or a fox, has not been known 
to be produced in that time. (Figs. 42 and 43.) 

J. P. Leslie, in his work entitled " Man's Origin and 
Destiny," in reference to this s;iys, "On the oldest mon- 
uments of the Pha- 
raohs, the pictures of 
different kinds of dogs 
are recognized by any 
child as the pictures of 
the dogs with which he 
plays to-day. The pic- 
tures of the negro, the 
Jew, the Egyptian, the 

Scythian, are perfect likenesses of the Nubians, Fellahs, 
Jews, and Turks of to-day. There you may see, portrayed 
in colors six thousand years old, the same slave-traders, 
driving down the same slave-coffles, as in the same val- 
ley of the Nile to-day. If all the races of mankind are 
variants, by the law of variation, from the form of Noah 
or of Adam, then how infinitely remote must have been 
the time when Noah or Adam lived ! " 

With all the wonderful changes which variation and 
human selection have produced in the pigeon, going on, 
as they have been, for thousands of years, yet no new 

Fig. 43. — The Egyptian Gazelle Dog. About 
4,000 years old. (From " The Types of 



species of bird has been formed : the fan-tails, pouters, 
and tumblers are pigeons still. The oak, the beech, the 
sassafras, the willow, and the poplar grew in the woods 
that clothed the American continent in the cretaceous 
time, probably four milhon years ago. (Fig. 44.) Out 
of one hundred and ten species of trees found in the 
cretaceous beds of Nebraska, at least half of them 

Fig. 44. — Sassafras (Araliopsis) mirabile. Lesq. From the Cretaceous Beds of 

Kansas. (Original.) 

belong to genera now living. The most common leaf 
that I found in the miocene beds of Wyoming was the 
poplar {Populiis decipiens^ Fig. 45), and the poplar is 
the common deciduous tree found in Wyoming to-day. 
Some of the same species of trees now growing were 
in the old cretaceous forests. Sassafras officinale, the 
only species now growing in the United States, is found 


in the cretaceous beds of Dakota. Our beech of the 
present time, Fagus polyclada, is found in beds of the 
same age. 

The herring is one of the most common fishes now 
found in the ocean, and a herring {cliipea humilis) is 
the most common fossil fish found in the eocene shales 
of Wyoming at this time. So like the living herring is 
it, that, when my son Sherman saw it for the first time, 

Fig. 45. — Populus decipiens. Miocene Beds, Wyoming. (Original.) 

he said, "Why, that is a herring." (Fig. 46.) With 
variation operating without a guide, and making a 
million changes where only one could be preserved, 
there should be no such fixity of type as this ; and its 
existence is one of the best evidences that unguided 
variation and natural selection have done comparatively 
little toward the production of the Hving beings which 
inhabit our planet. 



There is evidently a spiritual influence that permeates, 
and a spiritual intelligence that presides over, every 
organic being, and rules its destiny. In the tree they lay 
the pipes for the nourishing sap, artistically mould the 
leaf, paint the blossom, and place a honey-drop at its 
base to tempt the insect whose offices are needed at its 
marriage ; and they allow it no rest till the ripened fruit 
is formed. So has it been with the life-tree that bore 

Fig. 46. — Clupea humilis. Eocene Shale. Wyoming. (Original.) 

man. Why did he not remain the low-browed, ape- 
faced, naked, hairy, raw-flesh-devouring savage that -he 
was when he roamed through the woods of Great Brit- 
ain and France, before Niagara commenced to cut its 
way back from Queenstown? His hairy covering, as 
Wallace suggests, was a better protection from the 
weather than the naked backs of his descendants ; his 
thick skull was just adapted for the warfare that he was, 
and is still, compelled in many parts of the \vorld to 


wage with the wild beasts around him; his capacious 
chest, and strong-boned, muscular frame well fitted him 
for a Hfe in a world where the price of existence is a 
ceaseless struggle against opposing forces. 

Why did the face of the primitive savage become 
smooth? What narrowed the nostril, thinned the lip, 
diminished the space from the mouth to the nose, ad- 
vanced the eye from its cavernous retreat, and short- 
ened the arms? Why did his front brain enlarge, and 
his back brain diminish ? Why did greater beauty mark 
his face and frame, till the dumb, dirty, ignorant savage 
was transformed into the well-formed and philosophic 
man? Whence came his moral sense, that led him at 
last to sacrifice his own interest to increase the happiness 
of his fellows? Whence came that belief in future 
existence, that led him to lay by the side of the corpse 
the weapons of the chase that he supposed the spirit 
might need in another condition of being? Undirected 
variation, natural selection, and even sexual selection 
added, are utterly inadequate to account for these things. 


The Darwinian, in accounting for man, must not only 
account for the Caucasian, but also for the Ethiopian, the 
Mongolian, the Malaysian, the American, and other races 
of human beings, some of which are only represented 
to-day by outlying fragments, We only need to look at 



Fig. 47, the Hottentot Venus, who died but a few years 

ago, and whose model is now in the 
Garden of Plants in Paris, to see 
what an amazing difference at the 
present time exists between some of 
the races of mankind. The hump 
possessed by this female was no un- 
natural deformity : many years ago 
I saw a female Hottentot that re- 
sembled her in this respect, and in 
Southern Africa they are not uncom- 
mon. Nor do racial differences de- 
crease as we go backward in time. 
Fig. 48 represents the Chinese his- 
torian, Sse-ma-thsian, who was born 
B.C. 145. 

The Chinaman was no less 

Chinese then than now. Fig. 

49 is the portrait of Khoung- 

fou-tseu (Confucius), who was 

born 551 B.C. He differs 

considerably from the preced- 
ing ; but how distinct his face 

is from that of any Caucasian, 

Egyptian, and negro! The Fig. 48. - Chinese Historian, Sse- 

red Egyptians, three thousand "^^-^^^i^"- ('^f^^"" Pauthier.) 
five hundred years ago, were busy as bees in the valley 

Fig. 47. — Hottentot Venus. 



of the Nile ; splitting out blocks in the quarries, hewing 
them into column and statue, dragging them to their ap- 
pointed places, and building palaces for their kings, and 
temples for their gods. They were honeycombing the 
rocky hills, and rearing stony mountains, — in the shape 
of pyramids, — to make homes for their mummied dead ; 

their scholars were study- 
ing the peoples that sur- 
rounded them, and their 
artists were busy repre- 
senting them. The fol- 
1 owing representations 
(Figs. 50 to 53) were 
found in the tomb of 
Seti-Menephtha I., at 
Thebes, painted red, yel- 
low, black, and white.^ 
The first figure, red, 
represents the Egyptian, 
slightly modified in the 
Fellah of modern Egypt. 
The next, yellow, represents the yellow people with which 
the Egyptians were acquainted ; the best knowm to them 
would be the Arabians and Chaldeans, more highly 
colored at that time than the present Arabs and dwellers 
in the valley of the Euphrates. The next figure is as 

1 Types of Mankind, p. 85. 


Fig. 49. — Confucius, the Chinese Sage. 
(After Pauthier.) 



black and as distinctively negroid as the last is white and 
distinctively Caucasian. Figure 54 is an Egyptian repre- 
sentation of a negress, made nearly three thousand three 
hundred years ago ; and in the " Types of Mankind," 
from which I take it, we have the following description 

Figs. 50, 51. — Ancient Eg^'ptian representation of the races of mankind, about 
3,400 years ago. The left-hand figure is red, representing the Egyptian. The 
right-hand figure is yellow, representing the Shemites or Chaldeans. (After 

of a negress, by Virgil, written early in the second cen- 
tury : " In the mean while he calls Cybele. She was his 
only (house) keeper ; African by race, her whole face 
attesting her father-land ; with crisped hair, swelling lip, 
and blackish complexion ; broad in chest, with pendent 
dugs (and) very contracted paunch ; her spindle shanks 



(contrasted with her) enormous feet; and her cracked 
lieels were stiffened by perpetual clefts." Fig. 54 is from 
the grand temple of Thebes, and of the time of one of 
the Rameses of the twentieth dynasty. The differences 
at present existing between the various races of mankind 
were apparently just as great three thousand five hundred 
years ago as they are to-day ; and, if we come no nearer 

Figs. 52, 53. — Ancient Egyptian representation of the races of mankind, about 
3,400 years ago. The left-hand figure is black, representing the negro. The 
right-hand figure is white, representing the Caucasian. (After Champollion.) 

to unity in three thousand live hundred years, how much 
farther shall we travel back before we discover the one 
black, yellow, brown, or white source from which all our 
present races flowed? 



The Egyptians were acquainted with negroes, as we 
find from their documents, nearly four thousand three 
hundred years ago.^ RawHnson acknowledges that Baby- 
lonian monuments alojie carry back the origin of BabyJon 
to 3,905 years before the present time.^ All historians 
agree that the earliest civilization of 
Babylonia was a Turanian one : hence 
the difference between the people living 
there at that time and the Egyptians 
must have been greater than that between 
the modern Chaldean and the modern 
Egyptian. That the Caucasian race ex- 
isted as early as this, no scholar will dis- 
pute ; and we are now back five hundred 
years farther into the past, with Egyptian, 
Ethiopian, Turanian, and Caucasian as 
distinct, to say the least, as they are to- 
day. Egyptologists have demonstrated 

Egyptian repre- ^^^^ ^^^^ dwcllcr in the Nilotic valley was 
sentation of a ne- j^g much au Egyptian five thousand years 

ago as he was at the commencement of 
the Christian era, while the oldest Chaldean monuments 
represent a people in the valley of the Euphrates as dif- 
ferent from them as they were in the days of Nebuchad- 

Lieut. Smith, the ethnologist, gives us his opinion on 

1 Types of Mankind, p. 181, 2 Origin of Nations, p. 41. 



the subject of the fixity of races in the following words : 
" It may, then, be fairly said, that unmixed races, from 
the most remote historical time (nearly four thousand 
years), have preserved their distinguishing marks amid all 
the supposed causes of change, and may be considered 
permanent. The Ethiopian (negro) can no more 
change his skin than can the leopard his spots." ^ 


Fig. 55. — Ancient Negro. 

Geology enables us to travel much farther into the past 
than history. Back to that strange time known as the 
glacial period, or ice age, we go ; and in caves covered 
with a deposit of mud, laid down when three-fourths of 
Europe was under water, and icebergs sailed over the 
places now occupied by some of the most intelligent 
people of the planet, we find the remains of man. There 
can be no doubt that this was many thousand years back 

* Natural History of the Human Species, p. 87. 



of the historical period, and it becomes a very interesting 
question : Do these remains indicate that human beings 
were more closely aUied to each other then than now ? 
Are there any indications that we are arriving at the one 
trunk, from which all the branches of humanity grew? 
On the contrary, we have no living people on the globe, 
whose heads manifest as great diversity as the skulls of 

Fig. 56. — The Neanderthal Skull. The upper is a side view; the lower, 

a front view. 

these most ancient human beings show. The Neanderthal 
skeleton, found under a bed of loam in a cave sixty feet 
above the River Dussel, in the Neanderthal, when first 
exhibited at Bonn in 1857, impressed all naturalists that 
saw it with its brute-like characteristics. Professor Schaff- 
hausen declared that it was the most brute-like of all 
known human skulls. When Professor Huxley saw a cast 



of the skull, he said it was the most ape-like skull he had 
ever beheld.^ Lye'll says the outline of the Neanderthal 
skull shows a nearer resemblance "to that of a chimpan- 
zee than had ever been observed before in any human 
cranium." (Fig. 56.) Skulls resembling it have been 
found in Cochrane's Cave, Gibraltar ; at Borreby, in Den- 
mark, and in the Rhine loess; and there can be little 
doubt that these skulls present to us the brain develop- 

FiG. 57. — The Engis Skull. 

ment of an extremely brutal race that occupied Europe 
ages before history or even tradition was born. 

We have, however, other skulls, belonging apparently 
to a period as ancient as this, which, although not equal 
to the average skulls of the best living races, would not 
be out of place even on the shoulders of Europeans 
to-day. The Engis skull (Fig. 57), found in a cave near 

^ Lyell's Antiquity of Man, p. 79. 


Liege in Belgium, with the remains of many extinct 
animals, and generally regarded as ancient as the Nean- 
derthal man, is so superior in its characteristics, that 
Professor Huxley says it is " a fair, average human skull, 
which might have belonged to a philosopher, or might 
have contained the thoughtless brains of a savage," — 
from which we may learn that the Engis skull does not 
much depart from the average type of living skulls, and 
we may also learn that Professor Huxley is not a phre- 
nologist ; for the same kind of a skull never held the 
brains of a philosopher and the thoughtless brains of a 
savage. The Mentone, Cro-magnon, and other ancient 
skulls, are of fair development, and show the existence 
in Europe, at a very early period, of a race at least equal 
in mental endowment to that of the best savage races 
now upon the globe. 

The following is from Professor Paul Broca, in an arti- 
cle on the remains of man found in the caves of Peri- 
gord, with the remains of the mammoth and other 
extinct animals : " The quaternary race of Dordogne 
(Cro-magnon) differs from the quaternary race of the 
Belgian caves (Fig. 58) as much at least as dissimilar 
modern races differ one from another. The contrast is 
complete, not only when we look at the conformation 
and volume of the head, but also if we look at the form 
and dimensions of the bones of the hmbs." ^ But if 

^ American Journal of Science, July, 1869. 



races of men at that early time existed, who were as far 
or even farther apart than any hving races, how much 
farther back shall we go before these differences shall 

Buchner says, "It is true that some very ancient 
human skeletons, or parts of skeletons, have been found, 
which must have belonged to comparatively large and 

Fig. 58. — The Furfooz Skull, found in a Belgian Bone Cave by Dupont. 

very muscular men, such, for example, as the skeleton 
of the famous Neanderthal man, and the human bones 
recently found by M. Louis Lartet in one of the caverns 
of Perigord (Les Eyzies), and probably belonging to 
the period of the mammoth, which seem to indicate a 
rude, but strong and muscular race of men, with an 
approximation in the structure of the bones to the type 
of the apes, and with prognathous jaws, but nevertheless 
with a comparatively good development of the brain. 


On the other hand, most of the discoveries of the so- 
called quaternary period indicate a small race, with a 
narrow skull and prognathous jaws, and therefore of 
a type resembling that of the negroes or Mongols. In 
the most ancient period of the mammoth and cave-bear, 
the men, according to Broca, were not of large stature, 
had a narrow head, with a retreating forehead and 
oblique jaws, in fact, a general conformation of the 
body such as is now approximately met with in the low^ 
est races of Austraha and New Caledonia." ^ When we 
find the racial lines diverging for certainly more than 
ten thousand years, how can we believe that at any time 
still farther back they will ever unite ? 

When we come over to our own continent, we find 
the Calaveras skull, associated with extinct animals, and 
belonging to the pliocene period, the oldest of all known 
human skulls, pronounced by Professor Whitney to have 
a strong resemblance to the present Digger Indians of 
California. Castelnau found in the caves of the Andes, 
associated with extinct animals, skulls resembling those 
of the ancient Peruvian type, but in which the charac- 
teristics of that type were greatly exaggerated. So that 
the New World unites with the Old in declaring, that, as 
we go backward in time, there are no evidences that the 
races ever came from a single pair, but must have arisen 
from many widely differing individuals. But, if humanity 

* Man, Past, Present, and Future, p. 50. 


Started from different sources, the originals must have 
been ape-Uke brutes. And what should have caused the 
differences between them? The differences existing in 
still more remote ancestors, is the most reasonable 
answer. Without tracing their pedigree still farther into 
the past, we may ask, what caused these diversified apes 
to advance along independent lines to humanity? Did 
unguided variation operate simultaneously on each spe- 
cies of ape from which mankind has descended? and 
was it equally successful in all of them in enlarging the 
brain, expanding the forehead, lengthening the lower 
limbs, shortening the upper, causing the jaws to retreat, 
the hair to disappear from the body, and the stooping 
brute generally to advance to the upright man? I think 
the most pronounced Darwinian would shrink from 
acknowledging this. But, if not, we seem driven to the 
conclusion that along independent lines, by virtue of 
inherent force, and, as I believe, spiritual direction, life 
advanced till it was represented by various simian types, 
which fathered the different races of men now living 
upon our globe. 


Our ability to communicate ideas by language is, to my 
mind, an indication of man's spiritual origin. The first 
being who said bamba could not by the utterance have 
increased his chances of survival over his semi-simian 


comrades. How, then, came language, that wonderfully 
complex instrument for the transmission of thought, 
which we find to be the property of even every savage ? 

The existence of one language would be difficult 
enough to account for, on the ground of mere variation, 
natural selection, and sexual selection ; but the difficulty 
is very greatly increased, when we find that there are 
many distinct languages, and that, the farther we are able 
to trace them back, the more distinct they appear to be, 
indicating that languages sprang up independently among 
various people by virtue of inherent tendency. 

Most of the tongues of modern Europe bear a strong 
resemblance to each other ; but, as Miiller says, " By com- 
paring Greek, Latin, Gothic, Celtic, and Slavonic, we 
discover that they were originally derived from some lan- 
guage older still, of which they were the dialects. This 
language has been called Aryan ; and it can be proved 
that the people who spoke it, so long before all written 
history, led the life of agricultural nomads." The Sans- 
crit, the ancient language of India, which was spoken 
for centuries before the time of Solomon, is but a dialect 
of the same ancient Aryan language, which was spoken 
on the plateaus of Central Asia when Europe was in the 
stone age. Indo-European is the name given to the 
family of languages derived from the Aryan, from the fact 
that they are spoken generally throughout Europe and in 


A very different family of languages is found in Syria, 
Arabia, and generally in the south-western corner of Asia 
from the banks of the Euphrates to the Mediterranean, 
called the Semitic, from the notion that the descendants 
of Shem spoke these languages ; a better name by which 
it is sometimes called is Syro- Arabian. The Aramaic, 
Chaldean, Hebrew, Arabic, and Ethiopic languages are 
members of this family. This is no mushroom family. 
George Smith, who translated the Chaldean inscriptions in 
arrow-headed characters, found in the mounds of Assyria, 
says, " The Izdubar legends, containing the story of the 
flood, were probably written in the south of the country 
and as early as 2000 B. C. These legends were, how- 
ever, traditions before they were committed to writing, 
and were common in some form to all the country." 
As long ago as four thousand years, the multitudes in the 
valleys of the Euphrates and the Tigris were speaking a 
Syro-Arabian language, and their scholars were inscribing 
it on clay tablets to transmit to the future their thoughts 
and the story of their deeds. We can readily compare 
these ancient records with the equally ancient Sanscrit 
records, written in an Indo-European language ; and, if 
these two families of languages are branches of the same 
linguistic trunk, we ought to find them approaching 
nearer to it in four thousand years : but there is no 
evidence of this kind. Greek, German, and Sanscrit, 
which branched off from the original Aryan many thou- 


sand years ago, still show clearly their relationship ; and 
certainly, if the Indo-European and Syro- Arabian lan- 
guages came from the same original source, we ought to 
find some evidence of this in the similarity of their words 
or in their grammatical structure. But we do not find 
such evidence. Professor W. D. Whitney says, "The 
whole fabric and style of these two families of language 
is so discordant, that any theory which assumes their joint 
development out of the radical stage, the common growth 
of their grammatical systems, is wholly excluded. . . . 
Against so deep and pervading a discordance, the surface 
analogies hitherto brought to light have no convincing 
weight." ^ If the Syro- Arabian languages ever came 
from the same trunk as the Indo-European languages, 
it must have been before the grammar of these languages 
was formed ; and the grammar of a language is its soul. 

Alfred Maury says all the Syro- Arabian languages " dis- 
tinguish themselves sharply from the Indo-European lan- 
guages. They possess neither the same grammatical 
system, nor the same verbal roots." 

Sayce is of the same opinion : he says, " The class of 
languages nearest akin in appearance to the Aryan is the 
Semitic ; and here, if anywhere, upon the received the- 
ory " (that is, of all languages being derived from one) 
" we should expect to find the most convincing proofs of 
relationship. On the contrary, every thing is against it. 

^ Language and the Study of Language, p. 307. 


The structure of the language, the phonology of the 
speech, the conception of the grammar, the character of 
the lexicon, alike forbid the supposition." ^ 

Older than both of these, in its written form at least, is 
the Nilotic family, chief member of which is the Egyp- 
tian language, related to tongues that were once spoken in 
the North of Africa, in fact, from the Nile to the Canary 
Islands, and perhaps over a wnde region now under the 
Atlantic Ocean. We have documents written in this lan- 
guage that are, in all probability, five thousand years old. 
The Syro- Arabian and Nilotic languages being geographi- 
cal neighbors for many thousands of years, it is not sur- 
prising to learn that there are some resemblances between 
some of their words ; but there is little doubt that the 
Egyptian language was a spontaneously formed, original 
tongue, much more distinct from the Arabic, Hebrew, 
and Sanscrit four thousand years ago, than it was in the 
time of Cambyses. " Egypt has been literally, for many 
thousands of years, the football of foreign conquerors ; 
and her primordial language became infiltrated from age 
to age with Arabic, Persian, Greek, Libyan, Latin, and 
words of other tongues, known to us only at a later stage 
of development ; but when these exotic injecta are ab- 
stracted, there remains, nevertheless, a stone-recorded 
vernacular, possessing all the marks of originality, and in 
itself totally distinct from the utmost circumference of 
Asiatic languages."- Even Rawlinson tells us that 

» Principles of Comparative Philology, p. 102. 2 Types of Mankind, p. 234. 


" although in some respects it presents resemblances to 
the class of tongues known as Semitic, yet in its main 
characteristics it stands separate and apart, being simpler 
and ruder than any knowm form of Semite speech, and 
having analogies which connect it on the one hand with 
Chinese, and on the other with the dialects of Central 
Africa." ^ 

The Bask language, spoken by about three-quarters of 
a million people, who dwell among the Pyrenees, in the 
North of Spain, is like a lone island in the midst of a 
boundless ocean. There is no language with which we 
are acquainted that stands so much alone. Slight analo- 
gies have been traced between it and the language spoken 
by the Finns, and in some respects it resembles the 
American tongues ; but it is totally distinct from the 
Aryan, Semitic, and Egyptian tongues, and as far as we 
can judge has always been. It is probably the only living 
representative of a family of tongues spoken throughout 
Europe before the Aryan conquerors seized the country, 
and drove the darker-skinned and inferior inhabitants into 
the mountains and most inhospitable regions. 

We have found, then, four totally distinct languages, 
as far as we can judge, independently developed. But 
the Chinese language is certainly distinct from all four. 
" A distinguished historian and philologist, in comparing 
the languages of the extreme East with those of the Aryan 

' Origin of Nations, p. 198. 



group, says that ' if the planets whose physical constitu- 
tion resembles that of the earth are inhabited by organized 
beings hke ourselves, we may assert that the history and 
languages of those planets do not differ more from ours, 
than do the history and language of the Chinese.' " ^ 
Alfred Maury is right when he says, " The style of Gene- 
sis no more resembles that of the Chinese Kmgs, than 
the language of the Rig-veda approaches that which the 
hieroglyphics have preserved for us." ^ 

There are at least from eight to ten root-languages on 
our planet, that we have the best of reason to believe 
have come into existence as naturally as poems have 
been made in all those languages. Poetry never came 
by natural selection, nor do I believe it ever came by 
sexual selection, which would be much more probable. 
• It never came in various countries by being imitated 
from some one in which it had been miraculously 
planted. The ideal thinker blossoms in poetry spontane- 
ously, and hence the poems of all languages differ as the 
languages in which they are written differ. 

There are, of course, resemblances between all the 
languages of the globe, some of the phonic elements 
entering into the composition of all ; but this no more 
indicates their original unity than the resemblances we 
find in the voices of the birds indicate that they learned 

1 Buchner's Man, Past, Present, and Future. 
* Indigenous Races of the Earth, p. 28. 


their songs from some original feathered singer. As 
Agassiz justly observes, "There is no ornithologist who 
ever watched the natural habits of birds and their notes, 
who has not been surprised at the similarity of intonation 
of the notes of closely allied species, and the greater dif- 
ference between the notes of birds belonging to different 
genera and families. The cry of the birds of prey are 
alike unpleasant and rough in all ; the song of all the 
thrushes is equally sweet and harmonious, and modulated 
upon similar rhythms, and combined in similar melodies ; 
the chit of all titmice is loquacious and hard; the 
quack of the duck is alike nasal in all. But who ever 
thought that the robin learned his melody from the 
mocking-bird, or the mocking-bird from any other spe- 
cies of thrush? Who ever fancied that the field-crow 
learned his cawing from the raven or jackdaw? Cer- 
tainly no one at all acquainted with the natural history 
of birds. And why should it be different with men? 
Why should not the different races of men have origi- 
nally spoken distinct languages, as they do at present, 
differing in the same proportions as their organs of 
speech are variously modified? and why should not 
these modifications in their turn be indicative of primi- 
tive differences among them?"^ 

If languages did come into existence thus spontane- 
ously and independently, it must have been by virtue of 

* Types of Mankind, p. 28a. 


an innate tendency in human beings leading to their 
production. A chirping organ has been detected in the 
insects of the Devonian, say thirty milhon years ago ; yet 
among all the variations that might have taken place 
during that immense period, and that must have taken 
place for Darwinism to be true, not a step beyond simple 
stridulation has yet been made. Our crickets chirp as 
the Devonian insects did before the coal of Pennsylva- 
nia was laid down. The quadrumana have existed since 
the eocene tertiary, but the monkeys are as destitute of 
language now as they were three million years ago. In 
the case of man, what should have caused at least eight 
or ten dumb animals, and their descendants since the 
miocene period, independently to form languages for 
the expression of thought, all well adapted to the pur- 
pose, though differing widely from each other? Why 
should all the races of men develop languages, and all 
other beings fail? There is nothing in the history of 
languages that would indicate that they were formed by 
the operation of variation and natural selection ; while 
many facts point to the action of an innate tendency in 
humanity, forming languages as tendency and spiritual 
direction had previously formed the men that needed 
them for their further development. 



The tendency to beauty throughout nature also points 
to a spiritual cause underlying the operations of the 
universe. The face of a Hottentot may be symmetrical, 
but we cannot call it beautiful; so that, in addition to 
symmetry, there is an added glory which nature's works 
frequently possess, that must be accounted for. It seems 
probable, that, if all surrounding conditions were at all 
times favorable, all things would be beautiful. Winter 
showers upon us beautiful crystals of snow, because the 
condition of the aqueous vapor and the temperature of 
the atmosphere are such as to allow the tendency toward 
the beautiful to operate. Quartz in shapeless masses 
possesses few of the elements of beauty ; but, when crys- 
taUized from solutions in which the silicious particles are 
free to move as beauty directs, they form crystals whose 
beauty attracts even the most uncultivated eye. The 
mineral kingdom, for beauty of color and form, is not 
surpassed even by the vegetable kingdom ; and yet selec- 
tion, in the Darwinian sense, had nothing to do with the 
production of that color and form. When looking at 
the productions of the mineral kingdom, we may apos- 
trophize beauty in the language of the poet Thomson : — 

" At thee the ruby lights its deepening glow, 
And with a waving radiance inward flames ; 


From thee the sapphire, solid ether, takes 
Its hue cerulean ; and, of evening tinct, 
The purple-streaming amethyst is thine. 
With thy own smile the yellow topaz burns; 
Nor deeper verdure dyes the robe of spring, 
When first she gives it to the southern gale, 
Than the green emerald shows." 

Deep in the briny ooze the euplectella forms her spun 
glass basket. There is no variety in its color, but for 
beauty of form it is not surpassed by the production of 
any organized being that is known to us. Why should 
the natural tendency to symmetry and beauty be consid- 
ered sufficient for the production of this, and natural 
selection and sexual selection be called in to account for 
the plumage of the birds of paradise? The shells that 
are the habitation of the deep-sea mollusks vie in beauty 
of color with the plumage of tropical birds : yet selection 
could never have wielded the brush that laid on their 
lovely dyes. The soul of beauty, that spans the sky with 
rainbow arches, that adorns with crystals the geode's 
" hollow globe," that makes the marble halls of caverns, 
where darkness and solitude forever reign, more beautiful 
than kingly palaces, — this, in my opinion, infinitely 
more than sexual selection, made the humming bird a 
flying jewel, adorned the birds of paradise with their 
waving plumes and exquisite colors, moulded the human 
form, and will, in time, make every human being fair as 


our dream of an angel, and worthy of the title, a child 
of God. 


Another pointer is the €xiste?ice of the essentially hu- 
man faculties in man. Phrenology as taught by Dr. 
J. R. Buchanan is as much a true science as geology 
taught by Sir Charles Lyell, and can be much more 
readily demonstrated. This science reveals in man the 
existence of reverence, modesty, benevolence, chastity, 
integrity or conscientiousness, spirituality, and other 
essentially human faculties, which it is inconceivable to 
believe could ever have been produced by the operation 
of undirected variation and natural selection. How 
much more likely would an ape be to survive, who was 
modest, reverential, conscientious, and benevolent? In 
the relentless struggle for life among brutes, their exist- 
ence would but have rendered him a prey to the less 
scrupulous and the more vicious, and any variation in 
that direction would have produced a similar effect in pro- 
pordon to the amount of that variation. Conscientious- 
ness in such an animal w^ould have led him to abstain 
from the food which another had secured ; benevolence, 
to aid another at the expense of his own well-being ; 
while reverence and spirituality would have tended to 
destroy that selfishness, without which, among brutes, 
death would be inevitable. 


Vvhat, then, could have produced the incipient varia- 
tions which led to the formation of these dominant fac- 
ulties in man, which have led him, not unfrequently, to 
the dungeon with joy, and to the burning pile with tri- 
umph? If we could even conceive of the germs of 
these faculties appearing in the brutes that fathered the 
man, or in primitive man himself, what could have 
caused them to increase, as they must have done to 
attain their present development, when their exercise at 
that time must have made the individual a prey to his 
more brutal neighbors? 

The existence of these faculties in man points to a spir- 
itual type, — the perfect man, toward which the human 
race has been moving from its start, and that is destined 
eventually to be perfectly embodied in man, when the 
fruit of the tree of life is fully ripe. 


Another pointer, and perhaps the most significant of 
all, is the existence of spiritual faculties in man, for 
which mere variation, inheritance, and natural selection 
can never account. If the physical eye could be ac- 
counted for by natural selection, there would still remain 
the much more difficult task, that of accounting for the 
existence of the spiritual eye. It is absolutely certain 
that a great many persons — I have known as many as 
thirty or forty — can at times see objects with the eyes 


closed, as well or better than they can with them open, 
can see in the absolute darkness as readily as in the light, 
and thousands of miles off as well as near at hand. 
Deleuze, the well-known French magnetizer and author, 
says, " In somnambulists there are developed faculties of 
which we are deprived in the ordinary state ; such as see- 
ing without the aid of the eyes, hearing without the aid 
of the ears, seeing at a distance, reading the thoughts." ^ 
Henry George Atkinson, joint author with Harriet Mar- 
tineau of the Atkinson and Martineau Letters, writes : 
" I had once a very remarkable patient, a somnambule, 
who, with the eyes closed, could easily read any writing I 
gave her. She read from the top of her head, or when 
placed on her hand, or, in fact, from any part of her body ; 
and it was to be noticed in this case, that, the more tightly 
you pressed upon her eyes, the more clearly she could 
see." ^ Professor Weinholt in describing somnambulism 
says, the sleep-walker " reads printed and written papers, 
writes as well and correctly as in his waking state, and 
performs many other operations requiring light and the 
natural use of eyes. All these actions, however, are per- 
formed by the somnambulist in complete darkness, and 
with his eyes firmly closed." ^ Dr. Gregory, professor of 
chemistry in the University of Edinburgh, says, "The 

^ Instruction in Animal Magnetism, p. 185. 

2 Atkinson and Martineau Letters, p. 104. 

3 Mesmerism in India, Esdaile, p. 248. 


clairvoyant can often perceive objects wliich are wrapped 
up in paper, or enclosed in boxes or otlier opaque recep- 
tacles. Thus I have seen objects described, as to form, 
color, surface markings, down to minute flaws and 
chipped edges, when enclosed in paper, cotton, paste- 
board boxes, wooden boxes, boxes of papier-mache, and 
of metal. I have further known letters minutely described, 
the address, postmarks, seal, and even the contents, read 
off when the letters were enclosed in thick envelopes or 
boxes." ^ "Vision," says M. Teste, "through the closed 
eyelids, and through opaque bodies, is not only a real 
fact, but a \Qxy fj-equent fact. There is no magnetizer 
who has not observed it twenty times ; and I know at 
the present day, in Paris alone, a very great number of 
somnambulists who might furnish proofs of it." ^ 

In the report of a committee of physicians, appointed 
by the Royal Academy of Medicine in Paris, I find the 
following : " We have seen two somnambulists distin- 
guish with closed eyes the objects placed before them ; 
they have designated, without touching them, the color 
and name of cards ; they have read words written, or 
lines from a book. This phenomenon has occurred even 
when the eyelids were kept closed by the fingers." 

The distinguished Parisian professor of medicine, Ros- 
tan, in the " Dictionnaire de Medecine " remarks, " There 

1 Animal Magnetism, p. 37. 

2 Quoted by Bush in Mesmer and Swedenborg, p. 107. 


are few facts better demonstrated than clairvoyance ; " and 
he then tells us how he tested the clairvoyance of a 
somnambule by going into the dark, and turning the 
hands of his watch round, when the somnambulist in the 
dark accurately stated the hour and minute indicated by 
the pointers. This she did repeatedly without a mistake.' 

The men who give their testimony in favor of clair- 
voyance are as well able to know the truth of what they 
state, and are as worthy of credence, as the material 
scientists who receive their testimony with an incredulous 
smile ; and the faculty in man by which it is accomplished 
can never be accounted for by unguided variation, in- 
heritance, and natural selection. The persons who have 
possessed these faculties have been in nearly all ages the 
persecuted and despised ; many have been placed in luna- 
tic-asylums because they were regarded as insane, and 
not unfrequently been burnt for wizards and witches. 
Clairvoyance is the appearance in a few of what will 
probably be the heritage of all, by virtue of that indwell- 
ing spirit which carries the human race to its goal. 

The existence of the spirit of man after death is now 
scientifically demonstrated,- but no man will claim that 
natural selection is the cause of that existence. What is 
it, then, that perpetuates man's existence after death seizes 

1 Dr. Edwin Lee's Animal Magnetism, p. 104. 

* See the Scientific Basis of Spiritualism, by Epes Sargent ; and Zbllner's Tran- 
scendental Physics. 


the body, so that our friends can return and give us as 
demonstrative evidence of their existence as they did 
while Hving among us ? It is evident that there must have 
been something infinitely more potent at work than Dar- 
winians have yet presented, to bring into existence man, 
the spirit. 

Much of the improvement of humanity in beauty has 
been attributed to sexual selection. A man selects the 
most beautiful woman for a conjugal companion, a woman 
selects the most perfect man : some of their offspring 
advance in beauty, and, the more beautiful, the more 
likely they are to become parents. Suppose it true, — 
though it could have had but little influence in the in- 
fancy of the race, when rape was almost universal, when 
every woman was a mother, and every man a father, — 
whence came that appreciation of beauty, which led the 
man to choose the most beautiful woman, the woman the 
most perfect man ? For the man to choose a more beau- 
tiful woman than he had previously seen, — and without 
this the race could not advance in beauty without tend- 
ency leading in that direction, — he must have had an 
ideal of beauty more perfect than he had ever seen em- 
bodied ; and this, variation and natural selection do not 
account for. This is, in fact, as difficult to account for, 
to say the least, as the beauty itself. There is a sense of 
the beautiful in all of us, as there was in our savage fore- 
fathers, more perfect than any embodiment of it that the 


world has seen. Many an artist can paint a more perfect 
face than nature has yet been able to produce on this 
planet. Whence comes that sense of a beauty more per- 
fect than eye has ever beheld? The most moral man 
has a sense of moral perfection much in advance of that 
which he lives, or that he has ever seen expressed in 
the Hfe of any one. Priests and poets preach and sing 
better than they live. Whence comes this sense of a life 
superior to all that we have known ? Are not our souls 
portions of the universal soul, as every drop in the ocean 
is a part of the mass the moon heaves? The grand 
secret of the ages, hidden from all lower beings, is re- 
vealed to man ; and we can see the goal toward which 
life has been running for so long, and to which it must 
arrive, — the perfect man. 

We, too, are worlds, more wonderful than the ponder- 
ous globes that swim in the solar sea. Some are in the 
heated stage ; the boiling passions have not subsided, 
and the heart is a fiery hell. Others are in the granitic 
stage, hard, flinty, dry, and selfish. Some have advanced 
to life and beauty ; but all are imperfect. If the infinite 
spirit gave to the planet all those ages of the past to 
develop man, will there not be given him time to develop 
to perfect angelhood ? If out of the fiery lava man has 
been developed, can we imagine any thing too great or 
too good for even the lowest and meanest man to 
become ? The man of the mammoth period was superior 


to the savage of the cave-bear epoch ; the lake-dwellers 
of Switzerland were highly civilized compared with the 
occupants of the Dordogne caves, and the ancient Greeks 
and Romans were many strides in advance of them. 
There is no need for despondency, still less for despair. 
The stars are unmoved when the earthquake rocks a 
continent ; and they shine undimmed, though clouds for 
weeks obscure the sky. The canker-worms sweep from 
our apple-trees every leaf; and there they stand, each an 
image of desolation, amid the verdure and bloom of 
early summer. An ignorant spectator might say, 'Your 
apple-trees are dead." A few weeks, however, find them 
green as ever : they instantly commence to repair dam- 
ages, and, in the steady purpose to produce fruit, never 
falter for an instant. So Nature, never to be balked, 
started ages ago to make men ; and despite of heaving 
earthquakes, boiling oceans, sinking continents, ravaging 
tornadoes, devouring monsters, and life-destroying cata- 
clysms, here we are, the mighty masters of the world, and 
here our race will probably be for millions of millenni- 

And what she has done for the race is an indication of 
what she will do for the individual. This universe is no 
relentless mill, whose ponderous jaws only open that they 
may receive and hopelessly crush us, while we are to rest 
satisfied because our loss is to be the gain of our de- 
scendants. All this work during the ages was not done 


merely to produce man, and give him infinite desires that 
sickness should mock, and death extinguish. Why is life 
so sweet, and annihilation so terrible? Why should 
millions of ages have been spent to produce a being to 
whom future existence is so desirable, and then deny him 
what he of all the world only craves? There is a life 
after death : the past teaches it, the present declares it. 
Not without reason did the savage hunter of the long ago 
dream of a land to which the departed had gone ; not to 
mock him did the eternal spirit place the spiritual intui- 
tion in his soul. What he dreamed, we have had demon- 
strated : he had the instinct, we have the knowledge. 
Science may seem to rob religion of its charms, but it is 
destined to restore them a thousand-fold. As it rises to 
the zenith like a sun, faith in miracle will depart like a 
fog that the morning drinks up ; but confidence in the 
universal, beneficent, and intelligent operation of law 
will take its place. The belief in irremediable woe for 
any portion of humanity will vanish ; and in its place will 
come to all the assurance of conscious, continued exist- 
ence in a superior condition of being. As out of the 
ashes of a burnt-up world, in consequence of that divine 
tendency which has enabled life to conquer all enemies, 
to form garments of loveliness out of the shroud of death, 
and rainbows of hope out of the tears of despair, there 
has come the fragrance of the violet, the beauty of the 
rose, the song of the poet, the lore of the philosopher, a 


mother's love, and a martyr's virtue, — so, in the apparently 
infinite future that lies before the human soul, by that 
same divine tendency, the vilest criminals, " the deepest 
sunk in guilt and sorrow," may rise and climb from 
height to height of goodness and bliss, ever looking up- 
ward, while, from still untrodden heights, a purer and 
more perfect ideal shall forever beckon them on. 


Abbeville, gravel beds of, 87. 

spear from, 87. 
Adam, creation of, 112. 
Adamic protozoan, 112. 
Agassiz, on origin of languages, 174. 

on human brain, 57. 
Alps, flasks taken to, by Tyndall, 24. 
Amblyopsis, 113. 
Amblystoma, developed from axolotl, 

Amoeba, simplicity of structure of, 13. 
Amphibians, linking forms, 62. 
Amphioxus, a linking form, 62. 
Anatomical similarity, 58-61. 

between man and monkey, 60. 
Ancient negro, 161. 
Angel who set man on the pillar, 104. 
Animal layer, 54. 
Animals in high mountain regions, 33. 

alike to the eye in their egg state, 47. 
Anthozoa, not created, 100. 
Apes, skulls of, 92. 
Apple-seeds, 108. 

Apteryx, rudimentary wing bones of, 69. 
Archeopteryx, a linking form, 63, 105. 
Archeopteryx macroura, 106. 
Armadillo, 70, 71. 

Atkinson and Martineau letters, 180. 
Australia, plants of, compared with those 

of Europe, 137. 
Australian, brain capacity of, 64. 
Axolotl, changed to amblystoma, 143- 

Bacteria in closed flasks, 21, 22, 
Bakewell's sheep, variation in, 28. 
Baldwin, on age of Egyptian civUiza-> 

tion, 80, 81. 
Bask language, 172. 
Bastian, Dr., experiments with sealed 

flasks, 20. 
Begonia, 113. 
Blind fish of Mammoth Cave, 35. 

of Wyandotte Cave, 37. 
" Blind laws," 43. 
Boas and pythons, rudimentary limbs 

of, 69. 
Brain, human, symmetry of, 40. 
Brain-capacity of quadrumana and man, 

of eocene mammals, 129, 130. 
Braintree, trilobite of, 139. 
Broca, Paul, on physical characteristics 

of early man, 94. 
on remains of man in caves of Peri- 

gord, 164. 
Bronze age, 82, 83. 
Brutal characteristics of man, 91-97. 

Cabbage, in the West Indies, 33. 
Calaveras skull, 166. 
Cambrian age, organic beings of, 122. 
Canioni, Professor, experiments of, 21. 
Cape of Good Hope, plants of, 137. 
Carabid beetle of Mammoth Cave, 36. 
Carbonate of lime, cry-stallizalion of, 

23. 24- 




Carboniferous age, organic beings of, 

126, 127. 
Carter, Dr., on Naulette jaw, 95. 
Caucasian, brain capacity of, 64. 
Cauliflower and cabbage, 33, 34. 
Cavy, 70, 71. 
Cell division, 52. 
Cervical vertebrae of man and lower 

animals, 60. 
Chain-coral, 140. 

Changes produced by impregnation, 51. 
Chinese language, 172. 
Chlorostoma fimbrale, 141. 
Civilization, age of, in Egypt, 80. 
Clairvoyance, 180. 

Clark, Professor, on production of in- 
fusoria, 19. 

on egg resemblances, 47. 

on protozoa, 61. 
Clay stones, 40. 
Clupea humilis, 153, 154. 
Cod, reproductive powers of, 42. 
Cohesion, operation of, 12, 13. 
Conditions, improving since dawn of 

life, 38. 
Confucius, 157. 

Crystallization, on a window-pane, 12. 
Crystals, formation of, 23. 

repairs of, 24. 
Ctenomys, 71. 
Cyclonema bilix, 141. 

Dar^vin on first living form, 16. 

on organic forms on Galapagos Is- 
lands, 74, 75. 
on life's commencement, 111-113. 
on origination of new species, 148, 
Darwinian theory gives no clew to prog- 
ress, 131. 
Degradation of man, if created by mira- 
cle, 102. 
Deltas of Mississippi and Ganges, 77. 
Dendrite on slate, 13. 
on chert, 13. 
on sienite, 13. 

Devonian, fishes of, 73, 

age, organic beings of, 125. 
Dinornis, 37. 
Dinosaurs in Jurassic and cretaceous 

beds, 62. 
Documents indicating man's antiquity, 

Dogs, little variation of, 150, 151. 
Draper, J. W., on production of life, 23. 
on animals in egg state, 47. 

Earth, age of, 77. 

Egypt, a flourishing nation in Abra- 
ham's time, 79. 

civilization of, 82, 

stone age of, 82. 
Egyptian representation of races of 
men, 158, 159. 

of negress, 158, 160. 

language, 171. 
Elephants in France and England, 86. 
Elm, reproductive powers of, 42. 
Embryo, human, 56. 
Er.gis skull, 163. 
Eohippus, 68, 134. 
Eozoon, 74. 

Euplectella, beauty of, 177. 
Europe during stone age, 86. 
Excrescences on body of child, 30, 31. 
E.\ternal surroundings, powerless to 
create, 38. 

Factory, for making men out of granite, 

Fairies, babies, men, 44. 
Fingers of crinoids, 59. 
Formation of animal layer, 53. 
Fossils, confined to limited areas, 98, 99. 

of Potsdam sandstone, 99. 
Frere Abbe, on ancient European skulls. 

Frog, metamorphoses of, 48. 
Furfooz skull, 165. 

Galapagos Islands, animals and plants 
of| 74, 75- 



Garfield, discussion with, 4, 5. 
Gauls, described by Csesar, 31. 
Geological order of development, 49. 

succession, 72-74. 
Glacial period, man in, 86. 
Gosse, Philip Henry, on infusoria, 18. 
Grasshopper, wingless, of Mammoth 
Cave, 36. 

of Wyandotte Cave, 36. 
Gravitation, operation of, 12. 
Gregory, Dr., on clairvoyance, 180. 
Greyhounds, sent from England to Mex- 
ico, 33. 

Hands of monkeys, 59. 

Hawks and eagles, cared for, 43. 

Hereditary transmission, 30-32, 

Hesperornis, 64. 

Hipparion, 67, 68. 

Hooker, Dr., on variation, 27. 

Horses, de\eloped along many lines, 69. 

Hottentot Venus, 156. 

Human anatomy, studied from skeleton 

of monkey, 60. 
Human character of embryo, when es- 
tablished, 56. 

faculties, 178. 

ovum, description of, 50. 
Humboldt, on age of pyramids, 80. 
Huxley, opinions of, about production 
of life, 22. 

on cause of variation, 131, 132. 

on Engis skull, 164. 
Hydra, grows from fragment, 113. 

Ichthyornis, 64. 

Incisors, absence of in ruminants, 66. 

Ideal, followed by nature, 135. 

Indo-European languages, 168. 

Infusoria, 18-26. 

Insects, of Mammoth Cave, 36. 

of Devonian, chirping organ of, 175. 
Insular organic resemblance, 64. 
Intelligence, necessary to produce man, 

Jaws, human, of ape-like form, 95. 
Jaw of Arcy-sur-aube, 96. 

found at Ipswich, 96. 

of La Naulette, 95. 
Jew's nose, 30. 
Jurassic period, organic beings of, 128. 

Kent's Cave, time of occupancy by man, 


La Naulette jaw, 95. 
Labyrinthodon, track of, 59. 
Language, 167-175. 

Indo-European, 168. 

Syro-Arabian, 169. 
Languages, Nilotic family of, 171. 
La Couteur, Col., on variation of wheat 

grains, 27. 
Lepidosiren, 62. 
Leptothrix, 22. 

Leslie, J. P., on length of historical 
period, 78. 

on permanency of type, 151. 
Life, distribution of, 9. 

abounds where conditions are favora- 
ble, 23. 
Life after death, 186. 
Lime, formation of, 11. 
Lingula, ancient and modem compared, 

Linking forms, 61-65. 
Lion, diseased pelvis of, 46. 
Littorina litorea, 141. 
Lizards, modified into snakes, 70. 
Lyell, writings of, 3. 

on cabbage and cauliflower, 33, 34- 

on varieties, 34. 

on length of historical period, 7S. 

Magnetic force, probable action of, 65. 
Mammals, fossil, of South America, 71. 

of New Zealand, 72. 
Mammoth cave, how formed, 35. 
Man, rudimentary' organs in. 70. 

of spiritual origin, 115-187. 

antiquity of, 76, 91. 



Man, spirit of, survives death, 186. 

made out of dust, 98. 

created in image of God, loi. 

not the result of accident, 109. 

produced by intelligent spirit, no. 

of the pliocene, 130, 131. 

little changed by conditions, 146, 
Manward progress of our planet, 116- 

Marcel de Serres, on skulls found in 

Germany, 93. 

Marsupials of Australia, 72. 

Maury, Alfred, on language, 170. 

Men, in mountain regions, 33. 

Mesohippus, 134. 

Metamorphosis of animals, 46-58. 

Miohippus, 67, 68, 134. 

Missing link, 103. 

Modification, 32, 39. 

Mollusks of Europe and America com- 
pared, 139, 140. 

Monkeys of Eocene, 130. 

Mosquito, metamorphosis of, 47. 

M tiller, on Indo-European languages, 

Multiplicity of human origins, 155. 

Natural law, operation of, 14, 15. 

selection, 41. 

selection, the gardener not the cre- 
ator, 41. 
Neanderthal skull, 162. 
Negro, ancient, 161. 
New Zealand, mammals of, 72. 

wingless birds of, 72. 

seaweeds of, 137. 
Nilotic family of languages, 171. 
Notornis, 37. 
Nucleus, 52. 
Nucleolus, 52. 

Objections to man's natural origin, 97, 

Odontopteryx, 106. 
Opalina, a linking form, 62. 
Organic distribution, 136. 

Orohippus, 67, 68, 134. 

Our planet, formed by law, 10. 

Ornithorhynchus, 63. 

Owen, on production of Ufe, 23. 

on similarity between skeleton of man 
and monkey, 60. 

on old coral polyps, 100. 

Paleontological resemblance, 70, 71. 

Paleolithic age in Europe, 85. 

Parent cell, 52. 

Pasteur, on production of life, 22. 

Pengelly, on Kent's Cave, 86. 

Perigord, caverns of, 165. 

Persistency of type, 146-155. 

Pillar on which man stands, 103. 

Platyrrhine monkeys, 70, 71. 

Pliocene beds of California, 88. 

Pointers indicating man's natural origin, 

Pointers indicating man's spiritual ori- 
gin, 116-187. 

Populus decipiens, 152, 153. 

Prichard, on ancient Britons, 92. 

Primitive trace, description of, 54, 55. 

Proteus, 62. 

Protohippus, 134. 

Protozoa, 61. 

Protozoan, Adamic, 112, 113. 

Providence, general and special, 42. 

Pterodaclyle, 62, 63. 

Pyramids, antiquity of, 79, 80. 

Quatrefages, on tails of Esquimaux dogs 


Rabbits, reproductive powers of, 42. 

Race development of animals, 133-136. 

Rawlinson, on language, 171. 

Red grouse, 42. 

Reptiles, true, 62. 

Ribot, on heredity, 31. 

Roget, on human metamorphosis, 56, 57. 

Root languages, number of, 172. 

Rostan, on clairvoyance, 182. 

Royal Academy of Medicime, 181. 



Rudimentary organs, 66. 
in horse, 67, 
in man, 70. 

Salmons of New Zealand, 138. 
Salt, crystallization of, 23. 
Sassafras, in cretaceous beds, 152. 

mirabile, 152. 

officinale, 152. 
Sayce, on language, 170. 
SchafT Hansen, Professor, on primitive 

form of human skull, 93. 
Schiodte, on blind animals in caves, 34. 
Scincidse, 70. 

Sea-snails, ancient and modern com- 
pared, 140, 141. 
See-ma-thsian, 156. 
Seps, 70. 

Service-tree in Western Virginia, 33. 
Seti-Menephtha, tomb of, 157. 
Sexual selection, how accounted for, 183. 
Shells, of Silurian, 74. 

of Cambrian, 74. 
Silica, formation of, 11. 
Silk-worm, 47, 48. 
Skull of Calaveras County, 88-90. 
Skulls of ancient Britons, 92. 

of Europeans, 93. 
Sloth, 70, 71. 
Snow flakes, 14. 

South Shetland Islands, plants of, 138. 
Species, new, formation of, 107, io8. 
Spirit of the universe, 109. 
Spiritual ideals, 114. 

faculties, 179. 
Star-fish, digits of, 59. 
Stone age, of Europe, 82, 83. 

in Switzerland, 83. 
Stone spear from Abbeville, 87. 
Struggle for existence, 42. 
Switzerland in stone age, 83. 
Symmetry, 39. 

of clay stones, 40. 

of diseases, 40. 

Tadpole, kept in druggist's store, 37. 

Tallness, hereditary, 30. 
Tendency, 28-30. 

to beauty, 176. 
Terra del Fuego, plants of, 136, 137. 
Tertiary age, 129, 130. 
Teste, M., 181. 

Thomson on beauty in mineral king- 
dom, 176. 
Torulae, 22. 
Tradition, 78. 

Tree, natural and artificial, 16, 17. 
Trilobites of Europe and America com- 
pared, 139. 
Tyndall, on production of life, 22. 

experiments of, 24, 25, 

Van Mons, on variation of grape-seeds, 

Variation, 26-28. 

not a creator, 28. 
Vegetative layer, 54. 
Vestiges of creation, 3. 
Vibriones, 22. 
Virginia cherry, 33. 
Vitality, law of, 17-26. 

Wallace, remarks of, regarding Basti- 
an's experiments, 21, 22. 
on production of life, 23. 
Weapons, on banks of American streams, 

Weismann, on change of axolotl, 144, 

Whales, true, destitute of teeth, 69. 
Whitman, Walt, on man's development, 

118, 119. 
Whitney, Professor J. D., on Calaveras- 

County skull, 88-90. 
Whitney, Professor W. D., on language, 

Willson, Professor, on ancient Briton, 

Wingless birds of New Zealand, 37. 
Woonsocket, factory of, 117. 
Wyman, experiments of, with sealed 

flasks, 18, 19.